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Physical address, Logical address, Port address, and Specific address in networking | TechTerms
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We already know that in any network transport model, any two devices should start communicating based on their unique addresses. In simple terms, we can say that if any two devices want to enter into any kind of conversation (communication), they should first entify themselves in this complex network transmission area. So they should first know each other’s respective addresses (source and destination). In the Internet using the TCP/IP protocol, we have four levels of addresses for different layers. Let us now look at the different addressing methods in detail. The four addressing methods used are as follows: Physical address. Logical Address (IP). port address and . Specific address. Before going into detail about each addressing type, it is important to first understand the specific mapping (implementation) of each address in each layer of the TCP/IP model: The TCP/IP layer addresses the specific addresses used by the application layer Transport layer ports Address Network or Internet Layer Logical Address Data Link Layer/Physical Layer Physical Address.
1. MAC Addresses (Physical Address):
is also known as “link address”. It is basically the address of a specific node described by the LAN or WAN (already covered in the previous article). It is also included in the framework used by the DLL (Data Link Layer) of the OSI model. It is the lowest level address (the lowest address in the OSI model). Packets from source to destination host travel over the physical network. Internet Protocol address details are not useful, but hosts and routers are authenticated by their MAC addresses. MAC addresses are basically local addresses. It will be locally unique, but not universally unique. The format and size of such addresses will constantly change depending on the network. Most importantly, we should be able to map IP addresses to corresponding MAC addresses. The size and format of each physical address varies by network type. Ethernet (LAN) uses a 48-bit (6-byte) physical address, usually generated in a network interface card (NIC). The sender computer with physical address 15 wants to communicate with the receiver computer with physical address 54. A frame sent by any sender consists of the destination address, sender address, encapsulated data, and a trailer containing error control bits. As this frame traverses the bus topology, each indivual computer receives it and tries to match it to its own physical address, but the frame does not match its own physical address. If the destination address in the frame header does not match the physical address, the frame is simply discarded. At the recipient computer (D), the destination address matches its physical address (54). So the frame is accepted and decapsulation is performed to recover the data. So the frame is finally checked, headers and trailers are removed, and the data part is unpacked and passed to upper layers.
2. Logical Address(IP Addresses):
requires a logical address to enable common communication that may involve different types of physical networks. In a universal addressing system, each indivual host is uniquely entified, independent of any underlying physical network. Logical addresses are also known as IP (Internet Protocol) addresses. The Internet consists of many physical networks that are connected to each other through devices such as routers. The Internet is a packet-switched network, which means that data from source computers is sent in small packets with destination addresses. A packet starts from the source host, travels through many physical networks, and finally reaches the destination host. When the frame reaches its destination, the packet is decapsulated. The target logical address also matches the logical address of the specific computer. The data is then finally decapsulated from the packet and passed (forwarded) to the upper layers. The message frame is initially received by every entity on the LAN network, but then rejected by all but the base router, which eventually recognizes that the destination address of the site in the frame matches its own physical destination address. The router then finally decapsulates the packet to retrieve the destination logical address. At the network level, hosts and routers are also entified by their IP addresses. Note that while the physical address changes as you move from hop to hop (every hop), the logical address from source to destination remains the same. An IP address is an internet address. This is a universally unique address. Every protocol involved in a network requires an IP address. Logical addresses used on the Internet are currently 32-bit addresses. The same IP address can be used by multiple computers on the Internet.
3. Port Address:
IP addresses and physical addresses are necessary for each layer of data to be transmitted from a specific source entified to the desired destination host. But in today’s modern computers, we may need to run multiple processes at the same time. Suppose a computer that says “A” first communicates with another computer called “C” over TELNET. Now further imagine that the same computer “A” communicates with each computer “B” simultaneously via File Transfer Protocol (FTP). The main purpose of the Internet is to handle communications. For this, it is necessary to entify or name a specific process. So this process needs an address. The label assigned to the process is called the port address. It is a 16-bit address field. The physical address of the packet changes on each journey, but the logical and port addresses remain largely the same.
4. Specific Addresses:
Some applications often have simple (easy-to-use) addresses. Examples of specific addresses include University Resource Locator (URL) email addresses. Examples mainly include email addresses (eg email@example.com) and Universal Resource Locators (URLs) (eg www.gmail.com). These types of addresses are dedicated to specific addresses. However, this address is modified according to the desired logical and port address sent by the sender’s computer. This is the subject of the different addressing methods implemented in the TCP/IP architecture. From the next article, we will start to study each protocol in detail. So stay tuned. report this ad
What is Port address logical address and physical address?
Port address is the number of ports assigned to an application on a device while logical address is the IP address whereas a physical address is the MAC address of NIC that is used by data link layer.
What is physical and logical addresses in TCP IP reference model?
Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical (link) addresses, logical (IP) addresses, port addresses, and specific addresses. Each address is related to a specific layer in the TCP/IP architecture.
What is the difference between a port address a logical address and a physical address in the network using TCP IP protocol?
Port numbers are most commonly used with TCP/IP connections. These port numbers allow different applications on the same computer to share network resources simultaneously. The physical addresses change from hop to hop, but the logical and port addresses usually remain the same.
What are the address types used in TCP IP model?
Four levels of addresses are used in an internet employing the TCP/IP protocols: physical address, logical address, port address, and application-specific address.
What is specific addressing?
Examples of specific addresses are the e-mail addresses of the University Resource Locators(URL). Examples mainly consist of the email address (for eg, firstname.lastname@example.org) and the Universal Resource Locator (URL) (for eg , www.gmail.com). These kinds of addresses are designed for a specific address.
What is port address in TCP IP?
A port number is a unique identifier used with an IP address. A port is a 16-bit unsigned integer, and the total number of ports available in the TCP/IP model is 65,535 ports. Therefore, the range of port numbers is 0 to 65535.
What is the difference between physical address IP address and port address?
Here is a list of the differences between IP Address and Port Number. The IP address refers to the Internet Protocol Address. These basically identify a host present in a network. We use Port numbers for identifying any process/ service present on your system.
Is port number and port address same?
The Port number is 16 bits and assigned by the Network operating system when the application process creates the sockets. IP address is provided by network administrator or admin user of system. Port number for application is decided by the Kernel of the OS. This port no. is called port address.
What are the 3 types of addresses in a network?
Some link-layer protocols define three types of addresses: unicast, multicast, and broadcast. Each host or each interface of a router is assigned a unicast address.
What is physical address example?
Physical address means a person’s street, street number, and municipality. Physical address means a residential street address, school address, or work address of a program participant.
What are the size of physical address network address and port address?
Internet Protocol address (IP address) used to identify a host in network. 02. IPv4 is of 32 bits (4 bytes) size and for IPv6 is 128 bits (16 bytes). The Port number is 16 bits numbers.
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