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Computer Network – Osi Model (Osi Layers Complete Overview )? Top 4 Best Answers

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In the OSI reference model, the communications between a computing system are split into seven different abstraction layers: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.An OSI model consists of seven different layers which are typically described from the top to bottom. In order from seven to one, the layers are as follows: application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical.The network layer is layer 3 in the OSI model, and it is responsible for connections between different networks.

OSI Model Explained: The OSI 7 Layers
  1. Physical Layer.
  2. Data Link Layer. …
  3. Network Layer. …
  4. Transport Layer. …
  5. Session Layer. …
  6. Presentation Layer. The presentation layer prepares data for the application layer. …
  7. Application Layer. The application layer is used by end-user software such as web browsers and email clients. …

OSI Model Explained | OSI Animation | Open System Interconnection Model | OSI 7 layers | TechTerms

OSI Model Explained | OSI Animation | Open System Interconnection Model | OSI 7 layers | TechTerms
OSI Model Explained | OSI Animation | Open System Interconnection Model | OSI 7 layers | TechTerms

Images related to the topicOSI Model Explained | OSI Animation | Open System Interconnection Model | OSI 7 layers | TechTerms

Osi Model Explained | Osi Animation | Open System Interconnection Model | Osi 7 Layers | Techterms
Osi Model Explained | Osi Animation | Open System Interconnection Model | Osi 7 Layers | Techterms

Howdy fellas!! You might already go through my previous post about various layered tasks involved in a layered architecture of a network transmission model. Based upon this understanding we can now proceed further to understand the first reference model based upon the layered architecture concept i.e. Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model. An OSI model is based upon the layered framework that allows communication across all types of computer system. As the use of computer networks can be traced all over the world,thus there should be some standard framework to make worldwe data communication compatible to each other. This standard is developed by the ‘International organization of standardization (ISO)‘ . This standard framework is called the ‘Model for Open System Interconnection (OSI)’ layer. The complete functionality of network communication (internet and intranet) can be represented using multiple layers. This layered architecture is called OSI reference model. layer 7 Application Layer layer 6 Presentation Layer layer 5 Session Layer layer 4 Transport Layer layer 3 Network Layer layer 2 Data Link Layer layer 1 Physical Layer If you are in hurry, you may directly scroll down the page to see brief overview of the functions performed by each of these layers listed. And if you want a detailed overview of each layer , then be patient and enjoy reading.All the applications need not use all the seven layers listed above. The lower three layers are enough for most of the applications.Each layer is supposed to handle message or data from the layers which are immediately above or below it. Thus each layer takes data from the adjacent layer, handles it according to these rules, and then passes the processed data to the next layer on the other se. Without wasting much time lets see functions of each layer one by one :

1. Physical Layer

Functions  of the physical layer are as follows: To activate, maintain, and deactivate the physical connection. The physical layer basically defines the characteristics of the interface between the devices and the transmission medium. It also defines the type of transmission medium To define voltage and data rates needed for transmission. Data Rate : The transmission rate is the number of bits sent each second in the physical layer medium. To convert the digital data bits into an electrical signal. Representation of bits : The physical layer data consists of a stream of bits (sequence of Os or 1s) with no interpretation. Synchronization of bits : The sender and receiver not only must use the same bit rate but also must be synchronized at the bit level. Transmission mode : Physical layer also deces whether the transmission is simplex, half-duplex or full-duplex. A physical layer does not perform the following operations: It does not dece the medium or modulation. In simple words, we can say that the physical layer mainly deals with the interface between two communication devices and converts the message into bits and bits into message (line coding) . Further deals in the selection of line code, voltage levels, control signals , types of wire and type of connectors used. The example of the physical layer protocols are RS -232 or RS-449 standards.

2. Data Link Layer 

Functions of the data link layer are synchronization and error control for the information which is to be transmitted over the physical link. Flow control: If the rate at which the data is absorbed by the receiver is somewhat less than the rate at which data are produced in the sender, then the data link layer imposes a flow control mechanism. In order to enable the error detection ,it adds error detection bits to the data which is to be transmitted. Access control : When two or more devices are connected to the same link, data link layer protocols are important to determine which device should have control over the network at any given time. The encoded data is then passed to the physical layer.The data link layer adds reliability to the physical layer by adding mechanisms to detect and re-transmit damaged or lost frames. These error detection bits are used by the data link layer on the other se to detect and correct the errors. At this level, the outgoing message is assembled into frames,and the system waits for the acknowledgments to be received after every frame transmitted. Physical addressing : If frames are to be distributed to different systems on the network, the data link layer adds a header to the frame to define the sender and/or receiver of the frame. Finally we can summarize the main functions of the Data Link Layer as frame generation,link establishment, frame transfer and link termination between two hosts.Error and Flow control is also the main features of this layer. Correct operation of the data link layer ensures reliable transmission of each message.Examples of data link layer protocols are HDLC , SDLC and X.25 protocols.

3. Network Layer

The functions of the network layer are as follows: To help route the signals through various channels to the other end. The connecting devices (called routers and switches) route or switch the packets to their final destination. The network layer is mainly responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of a packet, possibly across multiple networks (links). To act as a network controller by decing which route data should take . Logical addressing: The physical addressing implemented by the data link layer normally handles the addressing problem locally. To dive the outgoing message into packets and to assemble incoming packets into messages for the higher levels. The main function of this layer is to convert the logical address into a physical machine address. Also it deces the priority of the message and the route a message packet will take , when they’re present multiple routes to propagate. Further  it breaks the large data packets into smaller ones, so that it will comfortably pass through the data link layer. In short the network layer acts as a network controller for routing data.t helps in the generation of IP packets and facilitates the switching of packets. Routers and gateways form an integral part in this layer.

4. Transport Layer

As the name suggests these layer proves the transport services.The functions of the transport layer are as follows: It simply deces if the data transmission should take place on parallel paths or single path. Segmentation and reassembly : A message is dived into transmittable segments, with each segment containing a sequence number. These numbers then enable the transport layer to reassemble the message correctly upon arriving at the destination and to entify and replace the packets that were lost in transmission It does functions such as multiplexing, splitting or segmenting on the data. Transport layers guarantees the transmission of data from one end to other. Like the data link layer, the transport layer is also responsible for error control. However, error control at this layer is performed process-to process rather than across a single link(to avo duplication, loss and damage ofdata packets). Also, there is flow control(end to end) proved by this layer. It breaks the data group into smaller units so that they are handled more  efficiently by the network layer. This layer can able to make a connectionless and connection-oriented transfer of data.The transport layer, on the other hand, ensures that the whole message arrives intact and in order, overseeing both error control and flow control at the source-to-destination level(including congestion control for switching center). Also helps in TCP segment and UDP datagram generation.

5. Session Layer

This layer manages and synchronizes conversations between two different applications.This is the level at which the user will establish a system to system connection. The session layer mainly allows two systems to enter into a dialog. It further allows the communication between two processes to take place in either half-duplex (one way at a time) or full-duplex (two ways at a time) mode. It controls logging on and off ,user entification ,billing and session management. The session layer also allows a process to add checkpoints, or synchronization points, to a stream of data. In the transmission of data from one system to the other,at session layer streams of data are marked and re-synchronized properly so that the ends of messages are not cut prematurely and data loss is avoed. In a nutshell , this layer basically helps in Dialog control (for initiating data communication) and Dialog separation(to avo collision of data)

6. Presentation Layer

The presentation layer makes it sure that the information is delivered in such a form that the receiving system will understand and use it. It facilitates data encryption and decryption(for source and destination). The form and syntax(language)of the two communicating systems can be different Examples ,one system is using the ASCII code for file transfer and the other one uses IBM’s EBCDIC. Under such conditions, the presentation layer proves the “translation “from ASCII to EBCDIC and vice versa. The presentation layer at the sender basically changes the information from its sender-dependent format into a common format. The presentation layer at the receiving machine then changes the common format into its receiver-dependent format. It also proves data compression techniques for reducing the number of bits and it is also essential for transmission of multimedia such as text ,audio etc.

7. Application Layer

Application layer is at the top of all the layers.It proves different services such as manipulation of information in various ways , transferring the files of information, distributing the results etc. to the user who is sitting above this layer. The functions such as LOGIN ,or password checking are also performed by the application layer. Electronicail , accessing WWW,internet telephony etc are some of its main functions. It proves user interfaces and support for the services such as the electronic mail, remote file access and transfer, shared database management, and other types of distributed information services. A network virtual terminal is a software version of a physical terminal, and it mainly allows a user to log on to a remote host. The user can log on to a remote host due to this arrangement. The application layer proves File Transfer Access and Management (FTAM) which allows user to access , retrieve , manage or control files in a remote computer. We almost covered a brief introduction about each OSI layer. So now we will see some of the merits and demerits of OSI Reference Model : Firstly we will see the merits : It is a general model.It supports both connectionless and connection oriented services. The protocols used in OSI model can be easily substituted by new protocols as technology changes. Some demerits: As this model was proposed before the protocols were invented , so in real life, there is a problem of fitting protocols into a model. Session and presentation layers are typically not of much use . For a quick reference gue , you may refer the below table : Summary of Layers layer 7 Application Layer To allow access to network resources LOGIN and password checking etc layer 6 Presentation Layer To translate, encrypt, and compress data layer 5 Session Layer To establish, manage, and terminate sessions helps in synchronization of conversation between two devices layer 4 Transport Layer To prove a reliable process-to process  message delivery and error recovery , multiplexing ,splitting or segmenting the data , to break data into smaller units layer 3 Network Layer To move packets from source to destination, to prove internetworking, routing of signals layer 2 Data Link Layer  To organize bits into frames, to prove hop-to-hop delivery error detection and correction. layer 1 Physical Layer To transmit bits over a medium  to prove mechanical and electrical specifications . To make or break any connection. Each layer will handle data or message from the layers which are immediately above or below it. For this to happen there are a set of protocols to be followed. All the layers we will see in complete detail in subsequent posts. Last but not the least, we can say that the purpose of the OSI model is to represent how to facilitate communication between different devices without requiring changes to the logic of the underlying hardware and software. The OSI model is not a protocol but it is a model for understanding and designing a network architecture that is flexible, robust, and efficient.   In the next post we will see the layers in the TCP/IP protocol suite that do not exactly match those in the OSI model. The original TCP/IP protocol suite was defined as having the four layers i.e. host-to-network, internet, transport, and application. See you soon in my next post ….  report this ad


What are the 7 layers of the OSI model in order?

OSI Model Explained: The OSI 7 Layers
  1. Physical Layer.
  2. Data Link Layer. …
  3. Network Layer. …
  4. Transport Layer. …
  5. Session Layer. …
  6. Presentation Layer. The presentation layer prepares data for the application layer. …
  7. Application Layer. The application layer is used by end-user software such as web browsers and email clients. …

What are the 7 layers of the OSI model starting with Layer 7 at the top and layer 1 at the bottom must be in the correct order?

An OSI model consists of seven different layers which are typically described from the top to bottom. In order from seven to one, the layers are as follows: application, presentation, session, transport, network, data link, and physical.

What is network layer in OSI model?

The network layer is layer 3 in the OSI model, and it is responsible for connections between different networks.

How many layers are in the OSI model?

To help understand (and design) networks, the International Standards Organization (ISO) has developed a seven-layer model for networks known as Open System Interconnection (OSI) models [Sta97A]. Understanding the OSI layers will help us to understand the details of real networks.

What is OSI model PDF?

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is a reference tool for understanding data communications between any two networked systems. It divides the communications processes into seven layers. Each layer both performs specific functions to support the layers above it and offers services to the layers below it.

What are the advantages of 7 layers of OSI model?

The advantages of the OSI model are

It distinctly separates services, interfaces, and protocols. Hence, it is flexible in nature. Protocols in each layer can be replaced very conveniently depending upon the nature of the network. It supports both connection-oriented services and connectionless services.

What are the 7 layers of the OSI model and what is the purpose of each quizlet?

The OSI model divides the network architecture into seven layers starting from the bottom up: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation and Application Layers. The first layer of the OSI Model that handles the physical wiring and cables, along with electrical signals.

What are the functions of different layers in OSI model?

Summary of OSI Model Layers
Name Function
Session Ensures establishment and termination of the session.
Transport Enables data transport from source to destination machine.
Network Provides internetworking and packet movement.
Data Link Organize bits into frames.

Which OSI layer is most important?

Layer 3, the Network Layer

This is the most important layer of the OSI model, which performs real time processing and transfers data from nodes to nodes.

What is network layer functions?

Network layer is the third layer in the OSI model of computer networks. It’s main function is to transfer network packets from the source to the destination. It is involved both at the source host and the destination host.

What is network layer example?

Physical (e.g. cable, RJ45) Data Link (e.g. MAC, switches) Network (e.g. IP, routers) Transport (e.g. TCP, UDP, port numbers)

What are the three main functions of a network layer?

Functions of Network Layer:
  • Internetworking: This is the main duty of network layer. …
  • Addressing: Addressing is necessary to identify each device on the internet uniquely. …
  • Routing: In a network, there are multiple roots available from a source to a destination and one of them is to be chosen.

What is ISO layer?

ISO stands for International organization of Standardization. This is called a model for Open System Interconnection (OSI) and is commonly known as OSI model. The ISO-OSI model is a seven layer architecture. It defines seven layers or levels in a complete communication system.

Why is it called the OSI model?

OSI stands for Open System Interconnection is a reference model that describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a physical medium to the software application in another computer. OSI consists of seven-layer, each layer performs a particular network function.


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