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Controlled Access Protocol – Polling
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In the previous article, we saw the random access method of the data link layer medium sharing technique. Now, in this post, we will look at the controlled access method implemented in the data link layer. In dynamic media sharing (controlled access), stations negotiate with each other to find out which station is authorized to transmit. A station can transmit only if other stations authorize it. The random access method is easier to implement and useful when dealing with small traffic. Here we will mainly deal with the three main controlled access methods used in the transmission medium: The reservation system. investigation system. Token passing. Let’s understand each of them:.
Reservation System in Dynamic Medium Access Control
This reservation method requires the site to make a reservation before sending data. Time is dived into intervals. In each of these intervals, reserved frames precede data frames sent in that interval. Reservations are a timeshare mechanism. Each multiplex frame consists of reserved time slots. The number of bits per reserved slot is equal to the number of users. One bit is reserved for the user and the corresponding bit is set before transmission. In this system, each station transmits a single packet at full rate “R” bps. Transmissions from stations may be organized into variable length frames. If there are “N” stations in any system, there are exactly “N” reserved minislots in the reserved frame. Each mini slot belongs to a station. When a station needs to send a data frame, it makes a reservation in its own minislot. Stations that have made reservations can send their data frames after the reservation frame. In the above figure, there are “M” mini-slots, and the reserved interval is “r”. Stations use these minislots to indicate that they have packets to transmit in the appropriate frame. Stations wishing to send packets by broadcasting their reserved bits during the appropriate minislot. All stations listen to the reserved interval and then determine the order in which packet transmission occurs in the appropriate frame. The basic reservation system can be improved by using a time division multiplexing scheme. In the improved reservation system, free time slots are allocated to other stations. This overhead becomes significant as the number of stations (M) becomes very large. This will become a serious problem. This problem can be solved by not allocating a minislot to each station, then instead. Use random access techniques such as ALOHA or slotted ALOHA to have sites contend for minislot reservations. The biggest disadvantage of this is that the reservation process requires extra bits.
Polling Technique in Dynamic Medium Access Control
In this system, the stations access the common medium one by one (by taking turns). At any instant , only one of the stations will transmit into the medium. Polling mainly works with topologies in which one device is designated as a primary station and the other devices are secondary stations. All the data exchanges must be done through the primary device even when the ultimate destination is a secondary device. The primary device controls the link whereas the secondary devices follow its instructions. It is up to the primary device to determine which device is allowed to use the channel at any given time. When a station finishes its transmitting, then some mechanism is used to pass the right of transmission to another station which wants to transmit next. The host computer acts as a central controller. It sends control messages which co-ordinate the transmissions from the stations. The central controller sends a polling message to a particular station. That station sends its message on the shared inbound line. Once this process is over, the station gives a go-ahead message. If the primary wants to receive data, it will then ask the secondaries if they have anything to send, this is called poll function. If the primary wants to send any data, it tells the secondary to get ready to receive, this is called select function. In brief, we can say that any secondary station can start frame transmission after the poll command reception. It is a time-sharing mechanism controlled by a primary station. This is majorly used for the HDLC networks . . The
Token Passing in Dynamic Medium Sharing Technique
token is a special frame that authorizes a specific station to transmit. Using this method, the stations of the network are organized into a logical ring. In other words, for a given station, there is one predecessor and one successor. The predecessor is the station that logically precedes the station in the ring, and the successor is the station that follows the station in the ring. The frame moves in one direction. They come from predecessors to successors. When there is no data transmission and the line is le, the token frame circulates around the ring. A station ready to send waits for a token. When the token circulates, the first ready station in the ring grabs the circulating token and transmits one or more frames. The station sends frames as long as the station has frames to send or the allotted time has not expired. It then forwards this token on the ring, and the next station ready to send will receive it on the ring. This access method requires token management. The amount of time a site can hold tokens must be limited. The token must be monitored to ensure it is not lost or corrupted. In other words, it’s a medium-sharing method that allows multiple users to access the same transmission line (medium) without conflict. Tokens are 3-byte frames that circulate on a given network. Any station can send a frame after receiving the token. In the next article, we will delve further into the channelization techniques implemented in the data link layer for efficient transmission media sharing. stay tuned. report this ad
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Controlled Access Methods In Dynamic Medium Sharing of DLL
In this post i.e. Controlled Access Methods In Dynamic Medium Sharing Techniques Of DLL , you will get the detail about the dynamics access …
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