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#29. Diffie Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm – Asymmetric key cryptography |CNS|
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The Diffie-Hellman algorithm, wely known as the key exchange algorithm or key agreement algorithm, was developed by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976. The Diffie-Hellman algorithm is used to generate the same (symmetric) private encryption key at the sender and receiver without the need for the sender to transmit this key to the receiver. Remember that the Diffie-Hellman algorithm is only used for key negotiation, not for message encryption or decryption. When a sender and receiver want to communicate with each other, they first agree on the same key generated by the Diffie-Hellman algorithm, which they can then use to encrypt or decrypt. Let’s start with the algorithm. Without wasting time, let’s begin to understand the steps in the process of running the Diffie-Hellman key exchange algorithm.
Steps of Diffie Hellman Algorithm !!
Basically, the main ea behind this Diffie-Hellman key exchange process is the ea of splitting the key into parts. Of the multiple parts, one part becomes public knowledge (non-confential), and other parts are then added to the part to create a full key similar to the one originally sent by the sender. 1. The first step is that if Ramesh wants to communicate with Suresh, they must agree on two large prime numbers p and q. 2. Ramesh chooses another secret large random integer a and computes R such that 3. Ramesh sends this “R” to Suresh. 4. Suresh independently chooses another secret large random integer b and computes S 5. Suresh sends the number S to Ramesh. 6. Now Ramesh calculates his key as 7. Suresh calculates his key as 8. Ramesh and Suresh can then agree on a future communication called a key agreement algorithm. 9. So we prove = K. (K stands for symmetric key). For example: 1. Ramesh and Suresh agree on two large prime numbers such as p = 17 and q = 7. Note: These p and q numbers can be declared publicly. These two numbers do not have to be kept secret. They can be broadcast over the Internet, or they can be public. 2. Ramesh chooses another secret large random number 5, which is H. a = 5, and calculate R such that = 11 = (7 x 7 x 7 x 7 x 7) mod 17 = 11 3. Ramesh sends the number R to Suresh. 4. Suresh chooses another secret large random number 3, which is H. b = 3, and calculate S such that = 3 = (7 x 7 x 7) mod 17 = 3 5. Suresh sends the number S to Ramesh. 6. Ramesh now calculates his key as follows: = 5 = (3x 3 x 3 x 3 x 3) mod 17 = 5. 7. Suresh calculates his key as follows: = = 5 8. If so Ramesh and Suresh can agree to future exchanges. 9. We know if == K = 5. So it is proved. Finally, as shown above, the plaintext is retrieved from the receiver using the Diffie Hellman key exchange encryption algorithm. In this encryption technique, two parties create a symmetric session key to exchange data without having to remember or store the key for future use. You don’t have to have a meeting to agree on a key; it can be done over the internet. Note: Diffie Hellman Key Exchange is not exactly an encryption and decryption process, but is used as a key exchange method/protocol.
Attacks In Diffie Hellman Key Exchange Algorithm !!
Diffie Hellman’s key exchange algorithm produces a difference called a man-in-the-mdle attack. Man-in-the-mdle attacks are also known as bucket chain attacks. However, the protocol has a weakness. An intruder does not need to find the values of p and q (as above) to attack the protocol. She (the intruder) can trick Ramesh and Suresh by creating two keys, one between her and Ramesh and the other between her and Suresh. Here, the sender and receiver don’t know that the integrity of the message (after the sender sends it and before it reaches the intended recipient’s original content) is being compromised. Due to eavesdropping, senders and receivers are unaware that a third party is eavesdropping on their communications. I hope you really enjoyed this post about the Diffie-Hellman key exchange process. Stay tuned for more in this series. report this ad
Is Diffie Hellman key exchange symmetric or asymmetric?
Diffie–Hellman Key Exchange Protocol
It is an asymmetric cipher used by several protocols including SSL, SSH, and IPSec. It allows two communicating parties to agree upon a shared secret, which can then be used to secure a communication channel.
What is Diffie Hellman key exchange in cryptography?
The Diffie–Hellman (DH) Algorithm is a key-exchange protocol that enables two parties communicating over public channel to establish a mutual secret without it being transmitted over the Internet. DH enables the two to use a public key to encrypt and decrypt their conversation or data using symmetric cryptography.
When Diffie-Hellman is used for key exchange user gets symmetric key or asymmetric key?
The Diffie–Hellman key exchange method allows two parties that have no prior knowledge of each other to jointly establish a shared secret key over an insecure channel. This key can then be used to encrypt subsequent communications using a symmetric-key cipher.
Is Diffie Hellman key exchange an encryption algorithm?
It enables the two parties who want to communicate with each other to agree on a symmetric key, a key that can be used for encrypting and decryption; note that Diffie Hellman key exchange algorithm can be used for only key exchange, not for encryption and decryption process.
What is symmetric and asymmetric encryption?
Symmetric encryption uses a private key to encrypt and decrypt an encrypted email. Asymmetric encryption uses the public key of the recipient to encrypt the message. Then if the recipient wants to decrypt the message the recipient will have to use his/her private key to decrypt.
What is the function of Diffie-Hellman algorithm?
The Diffie-Hellman key-exchange algorithm is a secure algorithm that offers high performance, allowing two computers to publicly exchange a shared value without using data encryption. This exchanged information is protected with a hash function.
In which situation is an asymmetric key algorithm used?
The SSH protocol uses an asymmetric key algorithm to authenticate users and encrypt data transmitted. The SSH server generates a pair of public/private keys for the connections.
What are Diffie-Hellman parameters?
The Diffie-Hellman key agreement parameters are the prime P, the base G, and, in non-FIPS mode, the optional subprime Q, and subgroup factor J. Diffie-Hellman key pairs are the private value X and the public value Y.
Is DES symmetric or asymmetric?
The data encryption standard (DES) is a symmetric block cipher.
Which one of the following algorithm is not used in asymmetric key cryptography Mcq?
Which one of the following algorithm is not used in asymmetric-key cryptography? Explanation: Electronic code book algorithm is a block cipher method in which each block of text in an encrypted message corresponds to a block of data. It is not feasible for block sizes smaller than 40 bits.
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