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File Transfer Protocol (Ftp) And Trivial File Transfer Protocol (Tftp)? Trust The Answer

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FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SFTP, TFTP Explained.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SFTP, TFTP Explained.
FTP (File Transfer Protocol), SFTP, TFTP Explained.

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Ftp (File Transfer Protocol), Sftp, Tftp Explained.
Ftp (File Transfer Protocol), Sftp, Tftp Explained.

Hello everyone! ! In the previous article, we have seen the detailed working of the email application. Now we see the next important application layer features, namely File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP). There is a standard Internet-proved mechanism for copying files from one host to another. Also, the largest amount of data exchanged on the Internet today is file transfers. In this post, we will learn more about this feature. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is basically the standard mechanism proved by TCP/IP for copying files from one host to another. But the process is not as easy as it seems. First, we should be aware of possible limitations when transferring files from one system to another: the two systems can use different file conventions. Text and data can be presented in different ways. The two systems can have different directory structures. FTP is an effective solution to all these problems. FTP differs from other client/server applications in that it establishes two connections between hosts. It establishes two types of connections between client and server (read FTP client and FTP server). One of them is used for data transfer and the other is used for control information (commands and responses). Control connections mainly use simple communication rules. We just need to transmit one command line or one response line at a time first. On the other hand, data connections use a more complex approach due to the different types of data to be transferred. FTP uses two well-known TCP ports, port 21 for control connections and port 20 for data connections. Note: FTP uses TCP’s services. It requires two TCP connections (port 20 and port 21).

Basic Model of File Transfer Protocol (FTP client and FTP server components)

The FTP client consists of three parts: User interface. Control process and data transfer process. The FTP server consists of two parts: the server control process and the . Server data transfer process. Control links connect control processes, while data links connect data transfer processes (see model above). The control connection is active throughout the interaction between the FTP server and the FTP client. First activate (start) the data connection, then transfer the file, and finally close the data connection. This sequence of events repeats for each file transfer over an FTP session. To sum up, when the control connection is open, you can open and close the data connection multiple times if you want to transfer multiple files. Controlling the connection This connection remains active during the entire FTP session between the FTP server and the FTP client. Port 21 of the TCP connection is used in this connection. IP uses the least-latency type of service to prove efficient communication between FTP servers and FTP clients. Data connections FTP uses port 20 for TCP connections for this service. This connection starts when the data is ready for transfer and closes when the transfer is complete. Unlike its counterpart (the control connection), this connection is opened and closed multiple times (not always) on demand.

Communication in FTP (FTP client and FTP server working principle)

FTP works in a client-server model configuration. The two workstations (computer or any other device) involved in the communication may differ in character set, working environment (operating system), file structure, etc. So FTP must first make them compatible for efficient file transfers. So now understand the basics of control and data connections (both are different from each other).

Communication over control connection

. FTP uses the same method as SMTP to communicate over a control connection. It uses the 7-bit ASCII character set. Communication is achieved through commands and responses. This simple approach is sufficient for controlling the connection, since we are only sending one command (or response) at a time. Each command or response is just a short line, so you don’t have to worry about file format or file structure.

Communication over data connection 

. This connection is set up to transfer data (files) between two connected computers. First define the following for the FTP client: The type of file to transfer. The structure of the data in the file. transfer method. File transfers occur over the data link under the control of commands sent over the control link. Let’s understand them one by one:

 File Types in FTP

FTP transfers data over a data connection using one of the following file types: ASCII files. EBCDIC file. image file. ASCII files are text files, and image files are the standard format for transferring binary files. For ASCII and EBCDIC files, one or more attributes should be added to define the printability of the file. EBCDIC files can be transferred if both parties use EBCDIC encoding.

Data structures in FTP

FTP uses one of the following data structures: File structure (default). record structure. page structure. The file has no structure. It’s just a stream of bytes. In the record structure, files are dived into records (only for text files). In the page structure, I’ve dived the file into pages that are stored and accessed randomly (or sequentially).

Transmission Mode in FTP

FTP transfers files using one of the following modes: Streaming mode. block mode. Compression mode. In streaming mode, data is transferred from FTP to TCP in a continuous stream of bytes. TCP chops this data into small stream segments of the desired size. This mode is the default transfer mode. In block mode, data is transferred from FTP to TCP in blocks of data. Each such block is preceded by a 3-byte header. In compressed mode, large files can be compressed. Run-length encoding is used for compression.

FTP File Transfer 

File transfers are done over the data connection and commands are sent over the control connection. These commands monitor data transfers. File transfer in FTP basically means one of the following: Retrieving files: The FTP server copies the files to the FTP client. (This is done under the supervision of the RETR command). Save files: Files can be copied from an FTP client to an FTP server (under the supervision of the STOR command). The server sends the client a list of directory or file names. FTP also treats such directory listings as files. (This is done under the supervision of the LIST command).

FTP Commands

The following command is used to copy files via FTP. Command Description Get Copy one file from remote host to local host M get Copy multiple files from remote host to local host Put Copy one file from local host to remote host M put Copy multiple files from local host to remote -Host The following FTP command For connecting to a remote host: Command Description Open Selects a remote host and starts the login process. The user entifies the remote user’s ID Command to end the FTP session: Command Description Exit Disconnects from the remote host and exits FTP Close Disconnects from the remote host but keeps the FTP client running Anonymous FTP To be able to use FTP, the user must be on the remote There is an account (username) and password on the server. Some sites often have a set of publicly accessible files to allow anonymous FTP. No user needs an account or password to access these files. Instead, users can use anonymous as the username and guest as the password. Users have very limited access to the system. Also, some sites only allow anonymous users to use some commands. For example, most sites allow users to copy some files but not to navigate the directory.

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)

Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) does not require user authentication. There is also no separation of data and control like FTP. This is typically used by devices without persistent storage. The use of TFTP is often limited due to the lack of security features. TFTP uses the unreliable transport protocol UDP (User Datagram Protocol) for data transfer. Each message in TFTP consists of a separate UDP datagram. The first two bytes declare the message type (whether to download/upload a file, etc.). On startup, the TFTP client sends requests to upload/download files from the UDP port to the TFTP server’s UDP port 69. After the TFTP server receives the request, it takes over its own UDP port and communicates with the TFTP client through this port. Therefore, both the TFTP client and server establish a file exchange connection. TFTP transfers data in blocks of 512 bytes. Additionally, each data block is assigned a 2-byte sequence number. An acknowledgment is also received before the next block is sent. If no acknowledgment is received, the same block is retransmitted. If the block size received by the receiver is less than 512 bytes, it is assumed that the end of file has been reached. Finally we have reached the end of this article. Also, in the next article, we will analyze in detail many common terms that we use (related to the Internet) in our daily life. report this ad



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