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Need Of Routing And Fragmentation (Bellman Ford And Dijkstra Algorithm)? All Answers

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Djikstra Algorithm vs Bellman Ford Algorithm|Comparison|Prof. Kamal Ghanshala|Graphic Era University

Djikstra Algorithm vs Bellman Ford Algorithm|Comparison|Prof. Kamal Ghanshala|Graphic Era University
Djikstra Algorithm vs Bellman Ford Algorithm|Comparison|Prof. Kamal Ghanshala|Graphic Era University

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Djikstra Algorithm Vs Bellman Ford Algorithm|Comparison|Prof. Kamal Ghanshala|Graphic Era University
Djikstra Algorithm Vs Bellman Ford Algorithm|Comparison|Prof. Kamal Ghanshala|Graphic Era University

Spoiler : this post is long yet interesting !! In the previous post we have seen the basic overview of the network layer and some of its basic functions. Now we must dig deep inse the two most important work which is indeed required for the correct delivery of packet data (delivery of data packet to correct destination is basic work done by this layer). Routing is a process of giving/assigning required route to an incoming data packet. Let us understand the complete complex process step by step. What is Forwarding of data packet ? Forwarding basically means to place a packet in its route to its destination. This requires a host or a router to have a routing table. Forwarding is defined as the process of placing the packet in its route towards its destination. Forwarding is possible only if the host or a router has a routing table of their own.  A sender host or a router will refer to this routing table when it receives a packet and from the table, they will find the root to the final destination. This process is complex as today in the internetwork environment, a large number of entries required to be made in a routing table. Types of the forwarding process Next hop method versus Route method This Route method is the most basic method in which the information about the complete route is stored in the routing tables of hosts and routers. The routing table holds only the address of the next-hop instead of the information about the complete route . This makes the routing tables extremely large and difficult to manage. In order to reduce the size of routing tables, the next hop method is used in which the routing table contains only the address of the next hop (upto the next router) instead of information about the complete route. Network specific method versus Host specific method Another technique to reduce the routing table and simplify the searching process is called the network-specific method. In the host-specific method, the routing table of a host or router will specify each destination host connected to the same physical network. This increases the number of entries in a routing table and makes it large. But in the network-specific method, we have only one entry corresponding to the destination network . Default method Another method to simplify routing is called the default method. In the routing table instead of listing all networks in the entire Internet, a host will have only one entry called the default entry (normally defined as network address This is one more method of simplifying the routing tables. To decrease the size of the routing table further, we need to extend the routing to include geographical routing. We must dive the entire address space into a few large blocks. Routing Element Let us first understand the basic element used in this layer.  Every one of us (mostly) might have used a router at our home or workplace.  Routers are simply devices that connect two or more networks and consist of both hardware and software.Various types of networks can be interconnected through routers. The software in any router is the operating system and the routing protocol.  Routers use logical and physical addressing to connect two or more logically separate networks. The large network is organized into small network segments called as subnets and these subnets are interconnected via routers. Each of the subnets is given a logical address. This allows any network to be separate but still access each other and exchange data. Data are grouped in the form of packets, or blocks of data. Each packet has a physical device address as well as a logical network address. Routing Tables The routing table for a host or a router consists of an entry for each destination, or a combination of destinations to route the IP packets. Routing tables can be of two types: Static routing tables. Dynamic routing tables. 1. Static routing tables Static routing table can be used in a small internet that doesn’t change very often, or in an experimental internet i.e.  for troubleshooting. The information in the static routing tables is entered manually. The route of a packet to each destination is entered into the table by the administrator .  This routing table can not update itself automatically. It has to be changed manually as and when required. Static routing table is useful only for small networks. 2. Dynamic routing tables The routers in the big internet such as the Internet need to be updated dynamically for efficient delivery of the IP packets.The dynamic routing tables can get automatically updated by using a dynamic routing protocol such as RIP, OSPF etc (all explained in later posts). Unicast Routing  In unicast routing, there is a one to one relation between the source and the destination. That means only one source sends packets to only one destination. The type of source and destination addresses included in the IP datagram are unicast addresses assigned to the hosts.  In unicast routing when a router receives a packet, it forwards that packet through only one of its ports which corresponds to the optimum path. The router can discard the packet if it can not find the destination address. A routing protocol is indeed a combination of rules and procedures that lets routers in the internet inform each other of changes. It basically allows the routers to share whatever they know about the internet or their neighborhood. Broadcast Routing In a broadcast communication, the relationship between the source and the destination is one-to-all. In this, the host has to send the packets to many or all other hosts. If the sender sends a packet to all destinations simultaneously then it is called as broadcasting. There are mainly three types in this :        1. Simple Broadcasting  In this method the source will simply send a distinct (a separate) packet to each destination. A lot of bandwth will be lost and the source has to have a complete list of all destinations.         2. Flooding Flooding is another method used for broadcasting. The problem with flooding is that it has a point to point routing algorithm. So it consumes a lot of bandwth and generates too many packets.          3. Multestination routing In this algorithm each packet will contain a list of destinations or a bit map that indicates the desired destination. When such a packet arrives at a router, the router first checks all the destinations. Then it deces the set of output lines that will be required based on the destination addresses. This will save bandwth to a great extent. Also generation of too many packets right from the sending end will also be avoed. Multicast Routing In multicasting , a message from a sender is to be sent to a group of destinations but not all the destinations in a network. The relationship is one-to-many. A process has to send a message to all other processes in the group. For a small group, it is possible to send a point to point message.  But this is expensive if the group is large. So we have to send messages to a well-defined groups which are small compared to the network size. Sending a message to such a group is called multicasting and the routing algorithm used for multicasting is multicast routing . .

Types of Routing Algorithms

Routing algorithms can be dived into two categories: Non-adaptive (static) algorithms: In these types of algorithms, routing decisions are not based on measurements or estimates of current traffic and topology. Adaptive (dynamic) algorithms: For these algorithms, routing decisions can be dynamically changed if topology or traffic etc. change.

Shortest Path Routing:

This algorithm is based on the simplest and most wely used principles. Here a subnet graph is created where each node represents a host or router and each arc represents a communication link. To choose a path between any two routers, the algorithm simply finds the shortest path between them. How do I dece the shortest route? One way to measure the length of a path is the number of hops. Another way (metric) is geographic distance in kilometers. For this purpose, some other metrics like queue and transmission delay can also be used to get the shortest path as the fastest path. There are many algorithms to calculate the shortest path between two nodes. One of them is Dijkstra’s algorithm. The other is the Bellman Ford algorithm.

Dijkstra’s Algorithm:

Dijkstra’s algorithm is used to compute the shortest path from the root node to every other node in the network. Dijkstra’s algorithm simply creates a shortest path tree from the graph. The algorithm dives the nodes into two groups, namely H. temporary and permanent. It first finds the current node’s neighbors, makes them heuristic, checks them, and if they meet the criteria, makes them persistent. The root node is defined as the node corresponding to the router running the algorithm. The total number of nodes is dived into two groups, namely P group (permanent) and T group (temporary). In group P, we have those nodes for which the shortest path has been found. The remaining nodes are placed in the T group. The path to each node in group T should be computed from the nodes that already exist in group P. We should find all possible paths from nodes that already exist in P to external nodes via single-hop paths, and choose the shortest of these paths as the path to the desired node. Distance Vector Routing Algorithm (Bellman-Ford Distributed Routing Algorithm) Each node’s table directs packets to the desired node by indicating the next stop in the route (next-hop routing). We can simply think of nodes as cities in a region and lines as roads connecting them. A table can show visitors the minimum distances between cities. With this algorithm, each router maintains a table called a vector. Such a table gives the best known distance to each destination and information on which route to use to get there. With distance vector routing, each router manages a routing table. It contains entries for each router on the subnet. The entry consists of two parts: the first part shows the preferred outgoing route and sum to reach the specified destination. The second part gives an estimate of the time or distance to that destination. For distance vector routing, we assume that each router knows the entities of all other routers on the network, but the shortest part to each router is unknown. A router periodically broadcasts a copy of its distance vector to all neighbors. When a router receives a distance vector from its neighbors. It’s trying to figure out if routing a packet to that destination through that particular neighboring router will reduce its cost to get there. Internetwork Concepts The network of computer networks is called the Internetwork, or simply the Internet. The best example of the internet is the internet. The difference between networking and internetwork can be stated as follows: In networking, all the devices (hosts) involved are compatible with each other. But in the web, this may not be the case. Networks interconnected by interconnection may or may not be compatible in many ways. Despite all the networking problems, computer scientists and engineers have found a mechanism to connect computer networks together. The two main incompatibilities that need to be resolved are: hardware issues and . software problem. We need to add some hardware to physically connect computer networks that are far apart. The router has its own CPU and memory. It has multiple input/output interfaces, allowing connection to many computer networks. A router at the software level must agree on how information is transferred from the source machine to the destination machine. All routers must acknowledge the same pre-established standard, thus establishing a standard packet format. Senders break down their raw messages into this standard packet format. Therefore, we need some protocol to regulate communication between incompatible networks.

What is IP Fragmentation in Network Layer

The network designer cannot arbitrarily choose any size of packet data. The maximum packet size varies by network, and the factors that determine the maximum packet size are as follows: TDM transmission slot wth. protocol used. The type of operating system. .International standard. . Try to reduce backpropagation. .hopefully prevent packets from occupying the current channel for too long. All of these factors limit the maximum packet size. The maximum payload size ranges from 48 bytes for ATM cells to 65,515 bytes for IP packets. We face a problem when a large packet wants to go through a network with a very small maximum packet size. The solution to this problem is to avo this in the first place by using a routing algorithm that prevents packets from being sent over a network that cannot handle them. But this solution doesn’t work every time. The real solution to this problem is fragmentation. Using this technique, the gateway breaks large packets into smaller packets, called fragments. Each fragment is then sent as a separate internet packet.

Method 1 of Fragmentation (transparent strategy)

in this strategy. Fragmentation caused by “small packet” networks is transparent to all subsequent networks the packet traverses. When a large packet arrives at the gateway, it dives the packet into multiple fragments. Each fragment is then addressed to the same egress gateway. The egress gateway (G2) reassembles all these fragments. In this way, the packet network becomes transparent; H. The rest of the network can’t see what’s going on. Subsequent networks don’t even know that fragmentation has occurred. The problem with transparent fragments is that the egress gateway needs to know that it has received all fragments. To do this, each packet must contain a count field or end-of-packet bit.

Method 2 of Fragmentation (non transparent strategy)

With this strategy, fragmented packets are not reassembled in any intermediate stages. This means that the egress gateway will not reassemble the fragments. Instead, each fragment is treated as a separate original package. All these packets are routed through one or more egress gateways, and their reassembly is performed on the destination host. Each host must be able to reassemble these fragments. Since each fragment must have a header, there is an increase in overall overhead due to fragmentation. The benefit of the opaque policy is that we can now use multiple egress gateways and improve network performance. Stay tuned for all routing protocols in subsequent posts. report this ad

Why do we need Bellman-Ford algorithm?

Bellman Ford algorithm helps us find the shortest path from a vertex to all other vertices of a weighted graph. It is similar to Dijkstra’s algorithm but it can work with graphs in which edges can have negative weights.

What is the need for routing algorithm?

Various routing algorithms are used for the purpose of deciding which route an incoming data packet needs to be transmitted on to reach the destination efficiently. These are the algorithms that change their routing decisions whenever network topology or traffic load changes.

Why do we need the Bellman-Ford algorithm instead of Dijkstra’s algorithm explain with a proper example?


As we can see, Dijkstra’s algorithm is better when it comes to reducing the time complexity. However, when we have negative weights, we have to go with the Bellman-Ford algorithm. Also, if we want to know whether the graph contains negative cycles or not, the Bellman-Ford algorithm can help us with that.

What are the applications of Dijkstra’s algorithm?

  • It is used in Google Maps.
  • It is used in finding Shortest Path.
  • It is used in geographical Maps.
  • To find locations of Map which refers to vertices of graph.
  • Distance between the location refers to edges.
  • It is used in IP routing to find Open shortest Path First.
  • It is used in the telephone network.

What is the difference between Dijkstra and Bellman-Ford?

Dijkstra’s algorithm is very similar to Prim’s algorithm for minimum spanning tree.

What are the differences between Bellman Ford’s and Dijkstra’s algorithms?
Bellman Ford’s Algorithm Dijkstra’s Algorithm
It can easily be implemented in a distributed way. It can not be implemented easily in a distributed way.
22 thg 1, 2022

In which case do we prefer Bellman-Ford algorithm over Dijkstra?

Bellman-Ford algorithm is a single-source shortest path algorithm, so when you have negative edge weight then it can detect negative cycles in a graph. The only difference between the two is that Bellman-Ford is also capable of handling negative weights whereas Dijkstra Algorithm can only handle positives.

Which algorithm is better for routing?

bellman-ford algorithm 2.

What is routing and types of routing?

There are 3 types of routing:
  • Static routing – Static routing is a process in which we have to manually add routes to the routing table.
  • Default Routing – This is the method where the router is configured to send all packets towards a single router (next hop). …
  • Dynamic Routing –

Which routing algorithm is used in Internet?

The routing protocols used in the internet are ARPANET protocol, Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Open Shortest Path First protocol (OSPF), Interior Routing Protocol (IRP), Exterior Routing Protocol (ERP), Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP), Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), Transfer Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet …

Will Dijkstra’s algorithm and the Bellman-Ford algorithm always yield the same solutions Why or why not?

12.11 Will Dijkstra’s algorithm and the Bellman-Ford algorithm always yield the same solutions? Why or why not? If there is a unique least-cost path, the two algorithms will yield the same result because they are both guaranteed to find the least-cost path.

What is Dijkstra’s algorithm what are its advantages and disadvantages?

Dijkstra’s algorithm has an order of n2 so it is efficient enough to use for relatively large problems. The major disadvantage of the algorithm is the fact that it does a blind search there by consuming a lot of time waste of necessary resources. Another disadvantage is that it cannot handle negative edges.

For what cases can we apply Bellman-Ford algorithm?

The Bellman-Ford algorithm is a graph search algorithm that finds the shortest path between a given source vertex and all other vertices in the graph. This algorithm can be used on both weighted and unweighted graphs.

Why is Dijkstra algorithm important?

Dijkstra’s algorithm solves the shortest-path problem for any weighted, directed graph with non-negative weights. It can handle graphs consisting of cycles, but negative weights will cause this algorithm to produce incorrect results.

What is Dijkstra’s algorithm in computer networks?

The Dijkstra’s algorithm finds the shortest path from a particular node, called the source node to every other node in a connected graph. It produces a shortest path tree with the source node as the root. It is profoundly used in computer networks to generate optimal routes with the aim of minimizing routing costs.

What is the use of Dijkstra’s algorithm explain it by taking a suitable example?

Dijkstra’s algorithm is an algorithm that is used to solve the shortest distance problem. That is, we use it to find the shortest distance between two vertices on a graph. Depending on what the graph represents, we can find shortest routes, minimum costs, etc.

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