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Network Layer – Introduction To Ip Protocol (Ipv4 Version Of Ip)? The 6 Correct Answer

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Topic 4 Network Layer Protocols and IP Addressing

Topic 4 Network Layer Protocols and IP Addressing
Topic 4 Network Layer Protocols and IP Addressing

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Topic 4 Network Layer Protocols And Ip Addressing
Topic 4 Network Layer Protocols And Ip Addressing

In the previous article, we looked at ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) in detail. Now let’s move on to the other important protocols at this layer. Therefore, in this article, we mainly focus on the network layer IP protocol. This is the host used to host the transport protocol that belongs to the network layer and was developed for the Internet. The Internet uses datagrams to exchange at the network layer. It routes packets from source to destination using generic addresses defined in the network layer. IP is a connectionless datagram protocol and does not guarantee reliability. This is an unreliable protocol because it proves no error control or flow control. IP can only detect errors and drop packets when they are corrupted. IPv4 assumes underlying unreliability and does its best to deliver transmissions to its destination, but there are no guarantees. If IP is to become more reliable, it needs to be combined with reliable protocols such as TCP at the transport layer. Each IP datagram is processed independently, and each datagram can take a different path to its destination. Therefore, packets received at the destination may be out of order. Some packages are even lost or damaged. IP relies on higher level protocols to handle all of these issues. Let’s take an example first. A more commonly understood example of a best-effort delivery service (that is, a service used by IP) (think IP instead of post office) is a post office. The Post Office does its best to deliver the mail, but it’s not always successful. If unregistered mail is lost, it is up to the sender or intended recipient to determine the loss and correct the problem. The post office itself does not track every letter and cannot notify senders of loss or damage.

What is a Datagram in IPv4 ?

A (data) packet in the IP layer is called a datagram. A datagram consists of two parts, the header and the data, as shown in the figure. The length of the datagram is not fixed. It varies between 20 bytes and 65536 bytes. The length of the header is 20 to 60 bytes. The information required for the routing and delivery of datagrams is stored in the header. Another part of the datagram is the variable length data field. The

Structure of IP Frame Header in IPv4 

IP frame header contains routing and control information related to datagram delivery. The structure of the IP header is shown in the following figure: Now let’s briefly look at each of these fields: VER (version): This 4-bit field defines the version of the IP. The current version of IP is IPv4 and the latest version. The IP version is IPv6. HLEN (Header Length): This field is 4 bits long and defines the length of the datagram header in a 4-byte word. The value of this field is multiplied by 4 to get the length in bytes. Differentiated Services (DS): This is an 8-bit field. Its role is to define es of datagrams for Quality of Service (QoS) purposes. Total Length: This 16-bit field defines the total length of the IP datagram. The total length includes the length of the header and data fields. The field length of these fields is 16 bits, so the total length of an IP datagram is limited to 65535 bytes, of which 20 to 60 bytes form the header and the remaining bytes are reserved for transporting higher layer data. Data Length = Total Length – Header Length Identification – This field is used to entify datagrams originating from the source host. When a datagram is fragmented. The content of the ID field is copied to all fragments. The destination uses this entification number to reassemble fragments of the datagram. Flags – This is a three-digit field. The 3 bits are: The first bit is reserved and should be 0. The second bit is called the “do not segment” bit. When this bit is “1”, the machine understands that the datagram should not be fragmented. The third bit is called the “More Fragment Bit (M)”. M=1 means the datagram is not a host fragment, M=0 means this is the last one. Fragmentation Offset: This is a 13-bit field that indicates the relative position of the fragment relative to the full datagram. It is the offset of the data in the original datagram, in units of 8 bytes. A raw IP packet (datagram) contains 4000 bytes, numbered from 0 to 3999. It is dived into three segments. Lifetime: Datagrams have a limited lifetime as they travel over the Internet. This is an 8-bit field that controls the maximum number of routers that data will access. Protocol: This 8-bit field defines the high-level protocol for using IPv4 layer services. This field defines a higher level protocol that uses IP layer services. IP datagrams can encapsulate data from various higher-level protocols, such as TCP, UDP, ICMP, and IGMP. The protocol field specifies the final destination protocol to which the IP datagram should be delivered. Value Protocol 1 ICMP 2 IGMP 6 TCP 17 UDP 89 OSPF Header Checksum: The checksum in the IP packet only covers the header. Because some header fields change, this field is recalculated and valated at every point in processing Internet headers. Source Address: This field is used to define the IP address of the source. This field MUST remain unchanged for the lifetime of the IPv4 datagram. Destination Address: This field is used to define the IP address of the destination. This field MUST remain unchanged during the passage of an IPv4 datagram from the source host to the destination host. Options: IP proves several optional features that allow the sender of a packet to set its path through the network (source routing), trace the routing of packets (record routing), and mark packets with security features.

List of Services proved by the IP in the Network Layer

IP proves the following services: Addressing: The IP header contains a 32-bit address that entifies the sending and receiving hosts. Intermediate routers use these addresses to route packets through the network. Fragmentation: IP packets can be split or fragmented into smaller packets. This allows large packets to travel over a network that can only handle smaller packets. Packet Timeout: Every IP packet contains a time-to-live (TTL) field that is decremented each time the router processes the packet. When the TTL reaches zero, the packet is dropped, preventing the packet from looping forever and flooding the network. Service Type: IP supports traffic prioritization by allowing packets to be marked with an abstract service type.

Addressing in IPv4 

All IP addresses are 32 bits long and are used in the source and destination fields of the IP header. The IP address format consists of two fields called Network ID and Host ID . An IP address consists of two parts. The first part of the address is called the network number and is used to entify a network on the Internet, and the remaining part is called the host ID and is used to entify a single host on that network.

Address Space in IPv4

The IPv4 protocol has an address space. It is defined as the total number of addresses used by the protocol. 32-bit IPv4 addresses are grouped into octets separated by periods. Then convert each octet to its binary equivalent. We will learn more about the addressing format used in IPv4 in the next article. So stay tuned. report this ad


What is Internet Protocol version 4 IPv4 )? What is the subnet mask?

Techopedia Explains Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

Classes A, B and C have a different bit length for addressing the network host. Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting, while class E addresses are reserved for future use. Class A has subnet mask 255.0. 0.0 or /8, B has subnet mask 255.255.

What is IPv4 in network layer?

IPv4 is a connectionless protocol used in packet-switched layer networks, such as Ethernet. It provides a logical connection between network devices by providing identification for each device.

What are the versions of IP?

There are four different types of IP addresses: public, private, static, and dynamic. While the public and private are indicative of the location of the network—private being used inside a network while the public is used outside of a network—static and dynamic indicate permanency.

Is IPv4 a network layer protocol?

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)

Internet Protocol is one of the major protocols in the TCP/IP protocols suite. This protocol works at the network layer of the OSI model and at the Internet layer of the TCP/IP model.

What is IPv4 explain briefly?

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the standard that routes Internet traffic and other packet-switched networks introduced in 1982 by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). IPv4 is the most widely used version of the protocol despite the limitations of its 32-bit address space.

What is IPv4 example?

IP (version 4) addresses are 32-bit integers that can be expressed in hexadecimal notation. The more common format, known as dotted quad or dotted decimal, is x.x.x.x, where each x can be any value between 0 and 255. For example, 192.0. 2.146 is a valid IPv4 address.

What are the types of IPv4?

IPv4 addresses are categorized into three basic types: unicast address, multicast address, and broadcast address.

What is the use of IPv4?

The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is a protocol for use on packet-switched Link Layer networks (e.g. Ethernet). IPv4 provides an addressing capability of approximately 4.3 billion addresses. The Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is more advanced and has better features compared to IPv4.

What are the features of IPv4?

Following are the features of IPv4:
  • Connectionless Protocol.
  • Allow creating a simple virtual communication layer over diversified devices.
  • It requires less memory and ease of remembering addresses.
  • Already supported protocol by millions of devices.
  • Offers video libraries and conferences.

What is the difference between IP and IPv4?

IP addresses are made up of binary values and drive the routing of all data over the Internet. IPv4 addresses are 32 bits long, and IPv6 addresses 128 bits long. IPv4 and IPv6 will be used for the foreseeable future; however there will be a transition from IPv4 to IPv6.

What is the first version of IP?

The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP. The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Its successor is Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), which has been in increasing deployment on the public Internet since c. 2006.

What is the latest version of IP?

Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the most recent version of the Internet Protocol (IP), the communications protocol that provides an identification and location system for computers on networks and routes traffic across the Internet.


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