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Sliding Window Protocol
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In the previous article, we saw two important flow control protocols, the stop-wait protocol and the sling window protocol. Now, in this post, we’ll take a closer look at more variants of the sling window algorithm.
A One Bit Sling Window Protocol (Stop and Walt ARQ) in Data Link Layer
This protocol is called a one-bit protocol because of the maximum window size here, i. H. “n” is equal to 1. It uses the slop and wait technique we discussed earlier. The sender sends a frame and waits for its acknowledgment. The sender sends its next frame only after receiving an acknowledgment for the earlier frame. Therefore, a one-bit sling window protocol is also known as a stop-and-wait protocol. How the Protocol Works The protocol works based on the ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) principle. Therefore, the sling window protocol is also known as the ARQ protocol. If it receives a positive acknowledgment (ACK), it sends the next frame. If it receives a negative acknowledgment (NAK), it resends the same frame. Retransmission of frames is essential in the following situations: When a received frame is corrupted. When a transmitted frame is lost. If the recipient’s acknowledgment is lost. Disadvantages of the stop-wait protocol The sender must wait at least one round-trip time before sending the next one. Only one frame is in transition at any one time. Protocol with GO Back N To improve transmission efficiency (filling the pipe), several frames must be in transition while waiting for an acknowledgment. In other words, we must allow more than one frame to be outstanding to keep the channel busy while the sender waits for an acknowledgment. This stop-and-wait protocol assumes that the transmission time required for the frame to reach the receiver plus the transmission time for the acknowledgment return is negligible. It is a technique used to overcome the inefficiencies of the ARQ flow control protocol by allowing the sender to keep sending enough frames to keep the channel busy while the sender waits for an acknowledgment. Sequence Number: Frames from the sending station (sending host) are numbered consecutively. However, since we need to include the sequence number of each frame in the header, we need to set a limit. The sequence number range increases from ‘0’ to 2 to ‘m’ – 1 if the frame’s header allows sequence numbers to be ‘m’ bits. The main difference between this system and the previous one is that the sender does not need to wait for an ACK – the signal used to transmit the next frame. It will continue to send frames as long as no “NAK” signal is received. A NAK is a negative acknowledgement signal sent by the receiver to the sender. Errors are introduced when transmitted frames are corrupted or lost or acknowledgments are lost. The receive window is always 1. The disadvantage of the Go-back-n ARQ protocol is that it is inefficient in noisy channels as it is necessary. The erroneous frame and all subsequent frames are retransmitted.
Selective Repeat ARQ in Data Link Layer
Go-Back-N ARQ basically simplifies the process on the receiver se. The receiver basically just keeps track of one variable, doesn’t need to buffer frames out of order, and then discards them. However, this protocol is very inefficient (mostly eal) for any noisy connection. On a noisy link, there is a higher chance of a frame being corrupted, which simply means resending multiple frames. For noisy links, there is another mechanism where if only one frame is corrupted, N frames will not be resent, only corrupted frames will be resent. This mechanism is called selective repeat ARQ. Using this method, only specified corrupted or lost frames are retransmitted. The selective retry scheme differs from the go-back-n scheme in that the receiver can order data frames and is also able to store received frames after sending a NAK until the corrupted frame is replaced The sender has a search Mechanism that allows it to select only the frames for which retransmission is requested, which is n – 1. With selective repeat ARQ, the size of the transmitter and receiver windows must be increased from 2 to at most half of “m”. In this system, the sender also does not need to wait for the ACK signal to transmit the next frame. It keeps transmitting frames until it receives a “NAK” signal from the receiver. Once the receiver detects an error in the received frame, the receiver sends a “NAK” signal back to the transmitter. For example, the receiver detects an error in the third frame. After receiving the “NAK” signal, the transmitter only retransmits the 3rd frame and then continues with sequence 8,9. Frames 4, 5, 6, and 7 received by the receiver that do not contain errors are not discarded by the receiver. The receiver receives retransmitted frames between regular frames. Therefore, the receiver must maintain the order of the frames. The selective repetition protocol also uses two windows, ie. H. A send window and a receive window. However, there are differences between windows in this particular protocol and windows in Go-Back-N. First, the transfer window size will be much smaller. A smaller window size simply means less efficient filling of the pipeline, but the fact that there are fewer repeating frames makes up for that. The selective ARQ protocol is the most complex of all ARQ protocols. Therefore, by selectively retrying ARQ, the sender only retransmits damaged or lost frames. Lost ACK or NAK frames are handled in the same way as the go-back-n method. A major difference is the number of timers. Every frame sent or resent here needs a timer, which means the timer needs to be numbered. The frame 1 timer starts on the second request, restarts when the NAK arrives, and finally stops when the last ACK arrives. The other two timers start when the corresponding frame is sent and stop when the last event arrives. The downse of this approach is that the system becomes more expensive due to the ordering and storage complexity required by the receiver and the additional logic required by the sender to select frames for retransmission. In the next article, we will discuss the HDLC protocol at the data link layer. Stay tuned..report this ad
What are the types of sliding window protocol?
- Go-Back-N ARQ.
- Selective Repeat ARQ.
What are the two types of sliding window ARQ?
- Go – Back – N ARQ. Go – Back – N ARQ provides for sending multiple frames before receiving the acknowledgment for the first frame. …
- Selective Repeat ARQ. This protocol also provides for sending multiple frames before receiving the acknowledgment for the first frame.
What is sliding window in data link layer?
A sliding window is also known as windowing. A sliding window is a method for controlling sending data packets between two network devices where dependable and sequential delivery of data packets is needed, such as using the Data Link Layer (OSI model) or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
What is sliding window technique?
Window Sliding Technique is a computational technique which aims to reduce the use of nested loop and replace it with a single loop, thereby reducing the time complexity.
What is the purpose of sliding window explain its types?
Sliding window is a technique for controlling transmitted data packets between two network computers where reliable and sequential delivery of data packets is required, such as when using the Data Link Layer (OSI model) or Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).
What are the protocols in data link layer?
The Data Link Layer protocols are Ethernet, token ring, FDDI and PPP. An important characteristic of a Data Link Layer is that datagram can be handled by different link layer protocols on different links in a path.
What are the two types of sliding window ARQ error control how do they differ from one another?
Sliding window ARQ is two types: Go-back-n ARQ, and Selective Reject ARQ. There are two ACK processing methods in sliding windows: Selective ACK: The ACK N message acknowledges only the frame with sequence number N. Cumulative ACK : The ACK N message acknowledges all frames with sequence number <= N.
Why is it used and what are the advantages of sliding window technique?
The sliding window provides several benefits: It controls the speed of transmission so that no fast sender can overwhelm the slower receiver; It allows for orderly delivery, as we will show; It allows for retransmission of lost frames, specific retransmission policy depends on the specific implementations.
What is selective repeat sliding window protocol?
Selective repeat protocol, also called Selective Repeat ARQ (Automatic Repeat reQuest), is a data link layer protocol that uses sliding window method for reliable delivery of data frames. Here, only the erroneous or lost frames are retransmitted, while the good frames are received and buffered.
What does a sliding window do in a TCP packet?
The TCP sliding window determines the number of unacknowledged bytes, x , that one system can send to another. Two factors determine the value of x : The size of the send buffer on the sending system. The size and available space in the receive buffer on the receiving system.
What is the purpose of TCP sliding window?
Explanation: The TCP sliding window allows a destination device to inform a source to slow down the rate of transmission. To do this, the destination device reduces the value contained in the window field of the segment. It is acknowledgment numbers that are used to specify retransmission from a specific point forward.
What is a sliding window called?
Sliding Sash Windows
The difference between these two comes down to operable panels. A double-hung window can open from top or bottom, whereas a single-hung window can only open one sash. Horizontal sliding windows are commonly referred to simply as sliding windows or slider windows.
Is kadane’s algorithm sliding window?
The optimal solution is Kadane’s Algorithm, but Sliding Window can still be applied with modifications (not recommended though) Find all possible subarrays along with their sums and put them in a map. Optimum solution is Kadane’s Algorithm.
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