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Multiple Access Protocols
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In the previous article, we took a detailed look at the methods of dynamic media sharing. Now let’s examine the static channel method in the DLL (Data Link Layer). Basically, channelization is a multiple access technique where the available bandwth of a connection is shared between different sites in time, frequency or by code. Depending on the method of sharing, there are three channelization techniques: FDMA: Frequency Division Multiple Access. TDMA: Time Division Multiple Access. CDMA: Code Division Multiple Access. We’ll discuss the applications of each (in more detail) in a later cellular networking post. Let’s understand each of these:.
Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) in Static Channelization of DLL
In Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), the available (average) channel bandwth is shared by all stations. This means that each station reserves its own specific time slot in the total channel bandwth. The available bandwth is dived into frequency bands. Each station is assigned a frequency band to transmit its data. Each radio also uses a bandpass filter to limit radio frequencies. To avo transmitter interference, the allocated frequency bands are separated from each other by narrow guard bands. Guard bands are proved between adjacent frequency slots. The guard band avos interference from adjacent channels. The power required for transmission depends on the number of channels to be transmitted. No synchronization is required between channels. FDMA is a data link layer access method. The data link layer in each station tells its physical layer to generate a bandpass signal from the data routed to it.
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) in Static Channelization of DLL
With TDMA, each user (station) can use the entire bandwth, but not simultaneously. A station can only use the entire bandwth for the allocated time slot. Therefore, each channel is allocated only one time slot to transmit its data. In this way, the time is dived and the frequency band is not dived. Each station transmits its data in allocated time slots. The main problem of TDMA is to achieve synchronization between different stations. With TDMA, the bandwth is only one channel, and TDMA needs to be synchronized, which is a bit more complicated than FDMA. TDMA is an access method in the data link layer (dll). The data link layer of each station first instructs its physical layer to use the allocated time slot. TDMA is a DLL (Data Link Layer) protocol that uses TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) at the physical layer.
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) in Static Channelization of DLL
An alternative to FDMA and TDMA is another system called Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). It differs from FDMA in that only one channel occupies the entire bandwth of the connection. It differs from TDMA in that all stations can send data at the same time, there is no time sharing. With CDMA, each user has a unique code sequence or signature sequence. This sequence allows the user to distribute the information signal on the allocated frequency band. CDMA is based on coding theory. Each station is assigned a code that consists of a series of numbers called chips. With CDMA, users have random access to channels. CDMA signals are spread in frequency. Then at the receiver, the same code sequence is used to reconstruct the signal. At the receiver, signals received from different users are separated by examining the cross-correlation of the received signal with each possible user signature sequence. Since in CDMA, the bandwth and time of the channel are shared by users, it is necessary to introduce guard time and guard band. CDMA does not require synchronization, but must use code sequences or signature waveforms. report this ad
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