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The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport protocol that is used on top of IP to ensure reliable transmission of packets. TCP includes mechanisms to solve many of the problems that arise from packet-based messaging, such as lost packets, out of order packets, duplicate packets, and corrupted packets.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) In terms of the OSI model, TCP is a transport-layer protocol. It provides a reliable virtual-circuit connection between applications; that is, a connection is established before data transmission begins.TCP/IP specifies how data is exchanged over the internet by providing end-to-end communications that identify how it should be broken into packets, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination.
How the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Works
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In this article, we’ll take a closer look at the next most important transport layer protocol, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) (other protocols, such as UDP, were covered in the previous article). TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented (using virtual connection) protocol and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a connectionless protocol. TCP mainly uses flow and error control mechanisms at the transport layer. Unlike UDP, TCP is a stream-oriented protocol. TCP proves services such as data transmission, reliability, efficient flow control, full-duplex operation, and multiplexing. This service benefits applications because they don’t have to break data into chunks (as UDP does) before passing it to TCP. Instead, TCP groups bytes into segments and forwards them to IP for delivery. It allows the sending process to pass data as a stream of bytes, and the receiving process to receive the data as a stream of bytes (note the fictitious “pipe” concept explained later in this article). TCP proves reliability (both flow and error control) by proving connection-oriented and reliable end-to-end packet delivery over the internetwork. The sending process first creates (writes) byte streams, then the receiving process consumes (reads) them. TCP’s reliability mechanisms allow devices to handle lost, duplicated, or delayed packets. The timeout mechanism mainly allows the device to detect lost packets and request retransmission. TCP supports full-duplex operation, which means that TCP processes can send and receive at the same time.
Relationship between TCP and IP
TCP groups bytes into packets called segments. TCP adds a header to each segment (for control purposes) and passes the segment to the IP layer for transmission. Let’s take a closer look: every TCP message is encapsulated or inserted into an IP datagram, which is then sent over the Internet to its destination. IP transmits this datagram from sender to destination without caring about the contents of the TCP message. At the final destination, IP passes the message to TCP software running on the target computer. IP works like a mail service, delivering datagrams from one computer to another. Therefore, TCP mainly handles the actual data to be transmitted, and IP is responsible for the transmission of this data. Many applications such as FTP, Telnet, etc. continue to send data to the TCP software on the sending computer. The TCP software acts as a multiplexer on the sending computer. It receives data from different applications, multiplexes the data and passes it to the IP software on the sending se. IP adds its own header to this TCP packet and creates an IP packet from it. Then this packet is sent to its destination. At the destination, the exact opposite process occurs. The IP software passes the multiplexed data to the TCP software. The TCP software on the target computer then demultiplexes the multiplexed data and forwards it to the appropriate application.
Concept of Port in TCP connection
Applications running on different hosts use ports to communicate with TCP. Each application is assigned a unique 16-bit number called a port. These ports are handy when an application on one computer wants to communicate with another application on several other computers over a TCP connection.
TCP Services At a Glance
Now let’s take a look at some of the important functions that the protocol proves at the transport layer: streaming services. Send and receive buffers. bytes and segments. Connection-oriented service. Reliable service. The process of handling communications. We will now look at each of these points indivually. 1. Stream Delivery Service TCP is a stream-oriented protocol. The sending process passes data in the form of a stream of bytes, and the receiving process receives the data in the same way. TCP creates a working environment in which sending and receiving processes appear to be connected by an imaginary “pipe”. 2. Send and receive buffers Send and receive processes may not generate and receive data at the same rate. Therefore, TCP needs buffers to store data on both ends. Two types of buffers are used in each direction: send buffers and , . receive buffer. in practice. Due to slow reception or network congestion, TCP may only be able to send part of the data to be sent. The buffer on the receiving end is dived into two parts: a part containing empty memory locations and a part containing received bytes that can be used by the sending process. TCP keeps these bytes in a buffer until an acknowledgment is received. The operation of the receiver buffer is simpler. The ring buffer is dived into two areas (white and colored). 3. Byte and segment buffers are used to manage the difference between data transfer speed and data consumption. As the service prover of TCP, the IP layer usually needs to send data in the form of packets, not byte streams. at the transport layer. TCP combines multiple bytes into a packet called a segment. Note: Data bytes transferred on each connection are numbered according to TCP. The number starts with a randomly generated number. 4. Full-duplex service TCP proves full-duplex service, and data can flow in both directions at the same time. Then each TCP has a send buffer and a receive buffer. TCP segments can travel in either direction, so TCP proves full-duplex service. 5. Connection-oriented service TCP is a connection-oriented protocol. When Process-1 wants to communicate (send and receive) with another process (Process-2), the sequence of operations is as follows: Process-1’s TCP notifies Process-2’s TCP and establishes a connection between them (two TCP establishes a connection between them). Process 1’s TCP and process 2’s TCP exchange data birectionally (data birectional exchange). Both TCPs destroy their buffers to end the connection (the connection is terminated). 6. Reliable service TCP is a reliable transport protocol, not as unreliable as UDP. The receiver uses various acknowledgments to tell the sender the status of the data. It uses an acknowledgement mechanism to verify the safe and clean arrival of data.
Flow, Error and Congestion Control in TCP protocol
TCP proves flow control (UDP does not). The receiver controls the amount of data sent by the sender. This avos data overflow at the receiving end. TCP uses byte-oriented flow control. The recipient of the data controls the amount of data sent by the sender. TCP has built-in error control mechanisms. This allows TCP to prove reliable service. The error control mechanism corrects errors in segments, but proves byte-oriented error control. TCP takes into account congestion in the network. UDP doesn’t do this. If any part of the subnet has a lot of packets, performance will degrade. This situation is called traffic congestion. Solutions to the congestion problem can be dived into two categories or groups of open-loop solutions and closed-loop solutions. Last but not least, you can check out the next article for more details related to the transport layer. So stay tuned.
What is TCP protocol in transport layer?
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) In terms of the OSI model, TCP is a transport-layer protocol. It provides a reliable virtual-circuit connection between applications; that is, a connection is established before data transmission begins.
What is Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol TCP IP reference and how it works?
TCP/IP specifies how data is exchanged over the internet by providing end-to-end communications that identify how it should be broken into packets, addressed, transmitted, routed and received at the destination.
Where is TCP protocol used?
TCP is used extensively by many internet applications, including the World Wide Web (WWW), email, File Transfer Protocol, Secure Shell, peer-to-peer file sharing, and streaming media.
Which is a transport layer protocol used in internet?
The best-known transport protocol of the Internet protocol suite is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). It is used for connection-oriented transmissions, whereas the connectionless User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is used for simpler messaging transmissions.
Why is TCP used?
TCP is used for organizing data in a way that ensures the secure transmission between the server and client. It guarantees the integrity of data sent over the network, regardless of the amount. For this reason, it is used to transmit data from other higher-level protocols that require all transmitted data to arrive.
What is the difference between TCP and TCP IP?
Main Differences Between TCP and IP
The TCP stands for the Transmission Control Protocol. On the other hand, the IP stands for the Internet Protocol. The use of TCP includes the exchange of messages over a network. On the other hand, the use of IP includes tracking down the user’s location.
What are the 5 layers of TCP IP?
The TCP/IP model is based on a five-layer model for networking. From bottom (the link) to top (the user application), these are the physical, data link, net- work, transport, and application layers.
What is TCP and its types?
The TCP/IP model was developed prior to the OSI model. The TCP/IP model is not exactly similar to the OSI model. The TCP/IP model consists of five layers: the application layer, transport layer, network layer, data link layer and physical layer.
What it is the Internet What is Internet used?
The Internet is a global network of billions of computers and other electronic devices. With the Internet, it’s possible to access almost any information, communicate with anyone else in the world, and do much more. You can do all of this by connecting a computer to the Internet, which is also called going online.
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