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Understanding Physical Layer Communications (Coaxial, Twisted pair, and Optical Fiber cables)
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So far, we’ve discussed the two-wire transmission medium, twisted pair, and the coaxial cable used at the physical layer. Now, in this post, we will introduce the next major wired transmission medium, which is H. Learn about fiber optic cables and their connectors used in various applications. Fiber optic cables are made of glass or plastic and transmit signals in the form of light. The structure of the optical cable is shown in the figure below.
What is Optical Fiber Cable (fiber optic cable definition) ?
Optical cables are generally cylindrical in shape and consist of three concentric parts: core, cladding and jacket. It is essentially based on the principle of reflection, directing light through a channel. The glass or plastic core is surrounded by a lower density glass or plastic cladding. The difference in density between the two materials must be large enough so that light passing through the core is reflected from the cladding rather than refracted into the cladding. It consists of an inner glass core surrounded by a lower refractive index glass cladding and protective shell. The digital signal is then transmitted as an intensity-modulated optical signal. Light is coupled into the fiber at one end using a light source such as a light emitting diode (LED) or laser. On the other hand, detection is performed by a photodetector such as a phototransistor or a photodiode. Fiber optic cables are more expensive than the other two types, but they offer many advantages over the other two types, namely twisted pair cable and coaxial cable. The outermost layer is the jacket. The jacket is made of plastic and other layered materials to protect it from moisture, abrasion, crush and other environmental hazards. For data transmission, the sending device as a transmitter must be able to introduce data bits “0” to “1” into the light source. The receiver uses photodiodes to convert the light back into data bits. Two commonly used light sources are: LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) and Injection Laser Diodes (ILDs). LEDs are cheaper, but have the disadvantage that the light they prove is unfocused, hits the core boundary and gets scattered.
Working of Optical Fiber Cables
Fiber basically uses reflection to gue light through the channel. The glass or plastic core is surrounded by a cladding of lower density glass or plastic material. The density difference between the two materials must be large enough so that any light passing through the core is reflected by the cladding rather than refracted within the cladding.
Principle of Light Propagation In a Fiber
Light enters the fiber from one end and is reflected within the fiber. As shown, it follows a zigzag path along the length of the fiber: when light enters the fiber from one end, most of the light travels along the length of the fiber and exits the other end. A small fraction of the incent light escapes through the sewall of the fiber. Light propagating from one end of the fiber to the other is sa to be “gued” through the fiber. Since “total internal reflection” occurs in the fiber, the light stays in the fiber and does not escape through the wall.
Modes of Propagation in Optical Fiber Cable
The number of paths that a light ray follows within a fiber optic cable is called a mode. The diagram below shows the different operating modes of optical fibers: There are two types, single mode and multimode fibers. In single mode, light travels through the core along a single path, while in multimode, light travels through the core along multiple paths.
Single Mode Optical Fibers :
Single mode primarily uses step-index fibers and a highly focused light source, confining light to a small range of angles, all angles close to horizontal. The diameter of single-mode fiber itself is much smaller than that of multi-mode fiber. The optical signal propagating within the fiber has only one group velocity. Due to single-mode transmission, the dispersion is lower than that of multimode fibers. These fibers can have a stepped or graded index profile. They are high-quality optical fibers for long-distance broadband communications, made of doped silica to reduce internal losses. An optical fiber can also be defined by the ratio of its core diameter (shown above) to its cladding diameter, both expressed in microns. The reduction in density also results in a critical angle close enough to 90° for the ray to propagate near horizontal. An optical path in single-mode fiber that is nearly horizontal and follows only one path from source to destination. The critical angle of incence for a highly concentrated beam is almost 90°. In single-mode fiber, the delay is negligible, the signal reconstruction at the receiving end is easier, and there is little signal distortion.
Multimode Optical Fibers
In multimode, multiple rays of a light source travel through the core on different paths. These are called multimode fibers because they support simultaneous propagation of multiple modes and the incent light follows different paths from source to destination. In multimode step-index fibers, the density of the core generally remains constant from center to edge. A ray of light travels through this constant density in a straight line until it reaches a specific interface between the core and the cladding. At the interface, due to the lower density, a sudden change occurs, changing the angle of travel of the beam. The term step index primarily refers to the suddenness of this change, which causes the signal to distort as it travels down the fiber. Each mode has its own group speed, and each mode follows its own path throughout the journey, from transmitter to receiver. Since there is more than one mode, there will be inter-modal dispersion. The second type of fiber, called multimode graded-index fiber, reduces signal distortion through the cable. The term index usually refers to the index of refraction. Thus, graded index fibers are fibers with different densities. Density is highest at the center of the core and gradually decreases to the lowest value at the edges. The effect of this variable density on light propagation. Multimode fibers can have a stepped or graded index profile, and they are fabricated using multi-component glass or doped silica.
Characteristics of Optical Fiber Cables
1. Fiber optic cables can prove extremely high bandwths in the range of 100Mbps to 2Gbps because light has a much higher frequency than electricity. 2. The number of nodes a fiber can support is not determined by its length, but by the hub or hubs that connect the cables together. 3. Fiber optic cables have much lower attenuation and can transmit signals over longer distances without the need for amplifiers and repeaters in between. 4. Optical cables are not affected by EMI effects and can be used in areas where high voltage flows. 5. The cost of optical cable is higher than twisted pair and coaxial cable. The installation of fiber optic cables is difficult and time consuming.
Advantages of Optical Fibers Cables
1. Small and light: The size (diameter) of the optical fiber is very small (equivalent to the diameter of a human hair). 2. Easy to obtain and low cost: The material for making optical fiber is “silica glass”. This material is readily available. 3. No electrical or electromagnetic interference: Since it is transmitted in the form of a beam, the signal is not affected by electrical or electromagnetic interference. 4. Since light generally has a very high frequency in the GHz range, the bandwth of the fiber is very large. 5. There is no crosstalk in the optical cable, the transmission loss in the optical fiber is small, and no repeater is required.
Fiber Optic Cable Connectors
Fiber optic cables use three types of connectors, as shown. The types are: Subscriber Channel (SC) connectors. Straight Tip Plug (ST). MT-RJ connector. SC connectors are used for cable TV. It uses a push/pull locking system. ST connectors are used to connect cables to network equipment. It mainly uses a bayonet locking system, which is more reliable than SC. MT-RJ is a new type of connector. It is the same size as the RJ 45.
Applications of Optical Fiber Cables (Fiber Optic Cable Uses)
Fiber optic cables are wely used in backbone networks because of their high bandwth and low cost. Some cable companies also use a combination of fiber and coaxial cables to create a hybr network. Optical fiber proves the backbone structure, while coaxial cable proves the connection to the user premises. Also used for Local Area Networks (LAN) Finally we have come to the end of this article. Stay tuned for more interesting content in this series. report this ad
What is the connector of optical fiber cable?
Fiber connectors are designed specifically for the type of fiber you are using. Single mode uses a 9/125 connector, which refers to the core and cladding diameter of the optical fiber (i.e. core of 9 µm and cladding of 125 µm). Multimode fibers require either a 50/125 µm (OM2/OM3/OM4) or 62.5/125 (OM1) connector.
Which two types of connector are used for fiber optic cable?
The common types of fiber optic connectors are LC, SC, MTP/MPO, ST, and FC. LC connector, as a main fiber optic connector, tends to be the most preferred one due to its compact size, high performance, and ease of use.
What is meant by optical connector?
An optical fiber connector is a flexible device that connects fiber cables requiring a quick connection and disconnection. Optical fibers terminate fiber-optic connections to fiber equipment or join two fiber connections without splicing.
Why connectors are used in optical fiber?
An optical fiber connector joins optical fibers, and enables quicker connection and disconnection than splicing. The connectors mechanically couple and align the cores of fibers so light can pass. Better connectors lose very little light due to reflection or misalignment of the fibers.
What are the 3 types of connectors?
By Michael Pecht and San Kyeong electrical connectors
Electrical connectors are classified into three types based on their termination ends: board-to-board connectors, cable/wire-to-cable/wire connectors, and cable/wire-to-board connectors.
What are the three types of fiber optic connections?
There are three types of fiber optic cable commonly used: single mode, multimode and plastic optical fiber (POF).
Which type of connector do we use?
XLR Connectors are the most commonly used professionally used connectors. They are primarily of three types; XLR Male, XLR Female & TRS. Each connector has three contact points that carry signals from the ground, positive and negative wires. XLR Male: This is used to connect a variety of hardware inputs.
What is optical fiber and its types?
Types of optical fiber
There are two primary types of fiber, each of which has a different application. These are multimode (MM) fiber, which has a large core and allows for multiple paths through the fiber, and single-mode (SM) fiber, which has only one path, through a much smaller core.
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