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# Advance Encryption Standard (Aes) In Cryptography – A Detailed Guide !!? All Answers

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## AES (Advance Encryption Standard ) Complete Explanation

AES (Advance Encryption Standard ) Complete Explanation
AES (Advance Encryption Standard ) Complete Explanation

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The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES algorithm) is a symmetric key encryption algorithm published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in December 2001. The algorithm was proposed by Rijndael, so it is also called Rijndael encryption algorithm. The Enhanced Encryption Standard is a replacement for the Data Encryption Standard. In this post, we will study the process of AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) in detail. The

## What Is AES (Advance Encryption Standard) In Cryptography ?

AES algorithm, a subset of Rijndael’s algorithm, is a block cipher, which means that it takes an input block of known size and outputs a block of the same size. The input key is also required as input to the AES algorithm. It allows data lengths (plain text size) of 128, 192 and 256 clicks, and supports three different key lengths of 128, 192 and 256 clicks. The AES algorithm is a symmetric key algorithm, which means that the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt messages. Also, the ciphertext generated by the AES algorithm is the same size as the plaintext message. AES consists of multiple rounds of different key bits, such as 10 rounds for a 128-bit key, 12 rounds for a 192-bit key, and 14 rounds for a 256-bit key.

## How Is The AES Encryption And Decryption Process Takes Place ?

The plaintext given is dived into 128 – bit block as consisting of a 4 x 4 matrix of bytes. Therefore, the first four bytes of a 128 – bit input block occupies the first column in the 4×4 matrix of bytes. The next four bytes occupy the second column, and so on. AES operates on a 4 x 4 column-major order matrix of bytes, called as state array. AES also has the notion of a word. A word consists of four bytes that are 32 bits . The number of rounds are 10, is for the case when the encryption key is 128 bit long. (As mentioned earlier, the number of rounds is 12 when the key is 192 bits and 14 when the key is 256.) Before any round-based processing for encryption can begin each byte of the state (plaintext) is combined with the round key using bitwise XOR operation. Nr stands for a number of rounds. AES dive plaintext into 16 byte (128-bit) blocks, and treats each block as a 4 x 4 State array . It then performs four operations in each round consists of several processing steps like the substitution step, a row-wise permutation step, a column-wise mixing step, and the addition of the round key. Except for the last round in each case, all other rounds are entical. Final Round doesn’t have (MixColumns) it includes only SubBytes, ShiftRows and AddRoundKey . The process of transforming the ciphertext back into the original plaintext using the same encryption key is called as decryption process of AES, during the decryption process the set of rounds are reversed.

#### What Are The Detailed Steps In Advance Encryption Standard (AES) ?

For encryption, each round consists of the following four steps : 1.  Sub Bytes 2. Shift Rows 3. Mix Columns and 4. Add Round Key The SubByte step/Substitute byte In AES : SubByte() consists of the replacement of each byte using a fixed S-box lookup table to achieve non-linearity into the 4 x 4 state array (16 byte). It performs roughly the same function as the S – BOX in DES. It operates on each byte in the state and performs a non-linear substitution in the Galios Filed GF (2^8) field, which is what makes AES a non-linear cryptographic system. State transformation will be done using SubBytes techniques and if apply reverse called as InvSubBytes transformation which will create original values. For every same two-byte value the resulting transformation is also same. It also shows that the InvSubBytes transformation creates the original one. Note that if the two bytes have the same values, their transformation is also the same. The corresponding substitution step used during decryption is called InvSubBytes. ShiftRows In AES Encryption : The output of the SubByte transformation is input to the ShiftRows transformation which consists of rotation of each byte of the state array in the order of a row of data matrix (rotation of row byte positions are done in this step). Each byte of the first row remains unchanged. Each byte of the second row is rotated over one byte to the left position. Similarly, the third and fourth rows are also rotated left by two and three position . MixColumns In AES Encryption : Mix Columns performs an operation on the state array obtained from ShiftRows column-by-column and each column is multiplied with a row of a fixed matrix. This step takes four bytes as input and produces outputs of four bytes (each input byte affects the output bytes). The four numbers of state arrays of the first column are modulo multiplied in Rijandeal’s Galios Filed (GF) by a given matrix . In the AES MixColumn step along with ShiftRows are the primary source for proving complete diffusion to the cipher produced. AddRoundKey In AES Encryption : In the AddRoundKey step, the Round key one generated using Rijndael’s key schedule is combined with the new state obtained from MixColumns transformation state. The round key is added by combining each byte of the state array using bitwise XOR operations. The actual ‘encryption‘ is performed in the AddRoundKey() function, when each byte of state array is XORed with the round key . The same process of AddRoundKey is applied for nine rounds i.e Repeat SubByte, ShiftRows, MixColumns step and XOR with Round key 9 more times. Except for the last round in each case, all other rounds are entical. Final Round doesn’t have MixColumns step it includes only SubBytes, ShiftRows and RoundKey. Finally an output cipher text will obtain after performing detailed steps of AES. A set of reverse rounds are applied (i.e.InvShiftRows, InvSubBytes, AddRoundKey and InvMixcolumns) to transform ciphertext back into ^e original plaintext using the same encryption key called Decryption process of AES .

#### How Is The AES Decryption Process Occurs ?

Decryption occurs through the function AddRoundKey ( ), plus the inverse AES functions InvShiftRows (), InvSubBytes (). InvMixColumns () and AddRoundKey () does not require an inverse function, as it simply XORs the state with the subkey (XOR encrypts when applied once, and decrypts when applied again). We aware that AES encrypts the plain text by applying different permutation and combinations, shift rows, mixing columns, it plays jugglery with the input bits and uses 128 bit key during the encryption process. So what if cryptanalyst stores the results of every previous step into some temporary variable and if he apply the same technique used in AES i.e. all possible permutation and combinations, shifting rows and mixing columns cryptanalyst may clue that what will be the original message. So it violates the principle of integrity, the meaning is that when sender sending plaintext messages to receiver and performing the AES steps still cryptanalyst able to modify the contents of original message, the get contents of original message get modified before it reaches to intended receipts then we say that AES encryption does not solve integrity problems . . The

## Why AES Is Better Than DES Encryption Method ?

data encryption standard takes 64-bit plaintext as input and creates 64-bit ciphertext, ie. H. It encrypts data in 64-bit blocks each. AES allows data lengths (plain text size) of 128, 192 and 256 bits. In DES, the plaintext message is dived into blocks, each block is 64 bits in size, and encrypted at the initial level with a 56-bit key. AES splits the plaintext into 16-byte (128-bit) blocks, treats each block as a 4 x 4 state array, and supports three different key lengths, 128, 192, and 256 bits. DES does not use the Mix Column, Shift Rows method during encryption and decryption. AES uses the Mix Column, Shift Rows method during encryption and decryption, which further enhances the strength of encryption. DES uses 56-bit keys, so there are 2^56 possible key combinations, which is about 7.2 x 10^16 keys needed to crack a DES cipher. AES is more powerful than DES because the key size varies from round to round. I hope you really enjoyed these AES encryption details, stay tuned for more interesting content in this series. report this ad

## What is the Advanced Data Encryption Standard AES )?

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher chosen by the U.S. government to protect classified information. AES is implemented in software and hardware throughout the world to encrypt sensitive data. It is essential for government computer security, cybersecurity and electronic data protection.

## What are the 4 steps of AES algorithm?

To review the overall structure of AES and to focus particularly on the four steps used in each round of AES: (1) byte substitution, (2) shift rows, (3) mix columns, and (4) add round key. Python and Perl implementations for creating the lookup tables for the byte substitution steps in encryption and decryption.

## What are the main characteristics of the Advanced Encryption Standard AES algorithm?

The AES replaced the DES with new and updated features: Block encryption implementation. 128-bit group encryption with 128, 192 and 256-bit key lengths. Symmetric algorithm requiring only one encryption and decryption key.

## What is AES algorithm example?

Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001. AES is widely used today as it is a much stronger than DES and triple DES despite being harder to implement. AES is a block cipher.

## How AES works step by step?

Steps in the AES Encryption Process
1. Derive the set of round keys from the cipher key.
2. Initialize the state array with the block data (plaintext).
3. Add the initial round key to the starting state array.
4. Perform nine rounds of state manipulation.
5. Perform the tenth and final round of state manipulation.

## How is AES encryption implemented?

The Advanced Encryption Standard is the most widely used encryption algorithm today. Its fast and secure but also easy to understand and implement.

Its 16*(rounds+1) bytes in length.
1. Step 1: subBytes and invSubBytes. …
2. Step 2: shiftRows and invShiftRows. …
3. Step 3: mixColumns and invMixColumns. …

## What are AES common uses and basic characteristics?

To recap, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a symmetric block cipher used to protect various types of information from prying eyes. It is a strong cipher, that is relatively easy to implement. In addition, it provides security significant enough for ‘Top Secret’ U.S. Government materials.

## Why is AES more secure?

AES brings additional security because it uses a key expansion process in which the initial key is used to come up with a series of new keys called round keys. These round keys are generated over multiple rounds of modification, each of which makes it harder to break the encryption.

## Is AES encryption symmetric or asymmetric?

AES is a symmetric algorithm which uses the same 128, 192, or 256 bit key for both encryption and decryption (the security of an AES system increases exponentially with key length).

## How many rounds are in AES?

AES has 10 rounds for 128-bit keys, 12 rounds for 192-bit keys, and 14 rounds for 256-bit keys.

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Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) · AES is a block cipher. · The key size can be 128/192/256 bits. · Encrypts data in blocks of 128 bits each.

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