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Lec-64: TCP: Transmission control protocol | TCP Header | Transport layer | part -1
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In the previous article, we took a detailed look at various basic terms related to the TCP protocol. In this post, we mainly focus on TCP segment headers and connections involved in TCP. Let’s start the discussion without wasting any time. Each byte in a TCP connection has its own 32-bit sequence number. These numbers are used for confirmation and windowing mechanisms. First, let’s understand some basic terms: 1. Segment: A TCP segment consists of a 20 to 60 byte header followed by data from the application. Sending and receiving TCP instances exchange data in the form of segments. A segment consists of a fixed 20-byte header (plus and an optional section) followed by zero or more data bytes. (Segment headers are explained later) 2. Segment size: Each segment including the TCP header must fit in an IP payload of 65535 bytes. The segment size is determined by the TCP software. 3. Fragmentation: If a segment is too large, it should be dived into small segments. Use segmentation through routers. Each new segment gets a new IP header.
TCP IP PORT (Process to Process communication)
As we saw with UDP, TCP also proves a process to handle communication on a port. Let’s take a look at some well-known port numbers wely used by the TCP protocol. Port Protocol Description 7 Echo Sends the received datagrams back to the receiver 9 Discard Discards all received datagrams 11 Users Active users 13 Daytime Returns the date and time 17 Quote Returns the quote of the day 19 Batches Returns a string 20 FTP data FTP data Connection 21 FTP Control FTP Control Connection 23 Telnet Terminal Network 25 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol 53 DNS Domain Name Server 67 BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol 79 Finger Finger 80 HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol 111 RPC Remote Procedure Call.
The TCP Segment Header :
Each segment begins with a 20-byte fixed-format header. The first 20 bytes correspond to the IP header and the next 20 bytes correspond to the TCP header. TCP segments without data are used to send acknowledgment and control messages. Now let’s understand each term contained in the header: 1. Source Port: This has the same purpose as the source port address in the UDP header. A 16-bit number that entifies the application that initiated the TCP segment in the sending host. Port numbers are dived into three ranges, ie. H. Well-known ports (0 to 1023), registered ports (1024 to 49151), and private ports (49152 to 65535). 2. Destination Port: This is the same as the destination port address in the UDP header. A 16-bit number that entifies the TCP segment for the application that receives the host. The destination port uses the same port number assignment as reserved for the source port. 3. Serial number: TCP is a streaming protocol. To ensure connectivity, each byte to be transmitted is numbered. A 32-bit number that entifies the current position of the first data byte in the segment within the entire byte stream of the TCP connection. After reaching the end, the number wraps around 0. 4. Acknowledgement Number: A 32-bit number that entifies the next byte of data that the sender expects to receive. This number is one greater than the last data byte received. This field is only used when the ACK control bit is on. 5. Header Length or Offset: A 4-bit field that specifies the total length of the TCP header in 32-bit words (or multiples of 4 bytes, if you prefer). The length of the header is between 20 and 60 bytes. Without options, the TCP header is always 20 bytes long. 6. Reserved: Currently unused 6-bit field, reserved for future use. 7. Control bits (flags): 7.1 Urgent Pointer (URG): If this bit field is set, the receiving TCP shall interpret the Urgent Pointer field. 7.2 Acknowledgement (ACK): When this bit field is set, the acknowledgment field described earlier is val. 7.3 Push Capability (PSH): If this bitfield is set, the recipient shall deliver this segment to the receiving application as soon as possible. 7.4 Reset Connection (RST): When present, this bit signals to the receiver that the sender is disconnecting. 7.5 Synchronization (SYN): If present, this field indicates that the sender is attempting to “synchronize” the sequence number. 7.6 Sender has no more data (FIN): If set, this bit field tells the receiver that the sender has reached the end of the byte stream for the current TCP connection. 8. Window: A 16-bit integer used by TCP for flow control in the form of the size of the data transmission window. This number proves the sender with information about the amount of data the receiver is willing to accept. The maximum value of this field limits the window size to 65,535 bytes. 9. Checksum: The TCP sender calculates a value based on the contents of the TCP header and data fields. This 16-bit value is compared to the value generated by the receiver using the same calculation. Inclusion of checksums in UDP datagrams is optional, while inclusion of checksums in TCP is mandatory. 10. Urgent notification: In some cases, the TCP sender may need to notify the receiver as soon as possible that the receiving application should handle urgent data. It defines the number to add to the sequence number to get the number of the last urgent byte in the data part of the segment. 11. Options: To prove additional functionality, several optional parameters can be used between the TCP sender and receiver. The length of the field varies depending on the options used, but cannot be larger than 40 bytes due to the size of the header length field (4 bits). 12. Padding: Since options can vary in size, it may be necessary to “pad” the TCP header with zeros so that the segment ends on a standard-defined 32-bit word boundary. 13. Data: Although not used in some cases (eg, reverse acknowledgement segment with no data), this variable-length field carries application data from the TCP sender to the receiver.
TCP Connection Establishment :
In order for the transport service to be reliable, TCP hosts must establish connection-oriented sessions with each other. All segments belonging to a message are sent over a virtual path. Using a single virtual path for the entire message simplifies the acknowledgment process and retransmission of damaged or lost frames. The connection is established using a three-way handshake mechanism. The three-way handshake synchronizes both ends of a connection by allowing both parties to agree on an initial sequence number. This also ensures that both parties are ready to send and know that the other is also ready to send. This is necessary so that packets are not transmitted or retransmitted during session establishment or after session termination. Each host randomly chooses a sequence number that keeps track of the bytes in the stream it sends and receives.
TCP Connection Termination Protocol (Connection Release)
Either of the two parties (sender and receiver) (client or server) participating in the data exchange can close the connection, although it is usually initiated by the client. Most implementations today allow two connection termination options, H. A three-way handshake and a four-way handshake with a semi-closed option. Although the connection requires three parts. It takes four times to complete a connection. Because TCP connections are full-duplex (that is, data flows in each direction independently of the other), connections should terminate independently in each direction. The completion process for each direction is shown below. The rule is that each party can send a FIN (FIN means done) after sending data is done. When the TCP program on the host receives the FIN, it notifies the application that the other se has ended the data stream. Getting a VIN can only mean that the data is no longer flowing. in this direction. TCP can still send data after receiving the FIN. The
TCP Connection Release
TCP connection is a full-duplex connection, but to understand connection sharing, let’s assume it is a pair of simplex connections. The termination of a TCP connection is the same on both ends. Each party can send a TCP segment with the FIN bit set, which means it has no more data to send. After a FIN is received, an acknowledgment signal (ACK) is sent and the direction is closed, but data can continue to flow in the other direction indefinitely. If the FIN sender does not receive an ACK within 2 maximum packet lifetimes, it releases (terminates) the connection. At some point, the receiver notices that he no longer receives any data. Finally we have reached the end of this article. Stay tuned for more interesting things in the next article.
What are the transport layer protocols for TCP IP?
Transport layer protocols at this level are Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), User Datagram Protocol (UDP), and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP).
Does the transport layer use segments?
One of the transport layer functions is segmentation. The job of this latter is clearly shown in the name ‘segmentation’. Segmentation means to divide something into pieces. When data arrives at the transport layer from the upper layers, it is taken then divided into segments.
What is a transport layer segment?
Transport layer segment
The transport layer converts the application layer messages it receives from a sending application process into transport layer packets, known as transport layer segments. In this conversion, application messages may need to be broken into smaller chunks.
What are ports in transport layer?
Ports are a transport layer (layer 4) concept. Only a transport protocol such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) can indicate which port a packet should go to. TCP and UDP headers have a section for indicating port numbers.
What is TCP header?
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) header is the first 24 bytes of a TCP segment that contains the parameters and state of an end-to-end TCP socket. The TCP header is used to track the state of communication between two TCP endpoints.
Which 2 protocols are used in transport layer?
Transport layer protocols, namely, Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP), identify applications communicating with each other by means of port numbers.
What is transport layer header?
The transport layer (TCP, SCTP, and UDP) reads the header to determine which application layer protocol must receive the data. Then, TCP, SCTP, or UDP strips off its related header. TCP, SCTP, or UDP sends the message or stream to the receiving application. The application layer receives the message.
Why is segmentation done in transport layer?
Segmentation may be required when: The data packet is larger than the maximum transmission unit supported by the network. The network is unreliable and it is desirable to divide the information into smaller segments to maximize the probability that each one of them can be delivered correctly to the destination.
What is in an IP header?
Each IP packet contains both a header (20 or 24 bytes long) and data (variable length). The header includes the IP addresses of the source and destination, plus other fields that help to route the packet. The data is the actual content, such as a string of letters or part of a webpage.
What are the elements of transport layer?
- The process to Process Delivery. …
- Multiplexing & Demultiplexing. …
- End-to-End Connection. …
- Data Integrity and Error Rectification. …
- Congestion Control. …
- Full Duplex Service. …
- Flow Management. …
How many ports are there in the transport layer?
There are 65,535 port numbers available, and these are divided into three ranges: Well-known ports (0 to 1023). These are reserved, and are commonly used by HTTP, SMTP, POP3, FTP, DNS, etc.
What is port address in TCP IP?
A port number is a unique identifier used with an IP address. A port is a 16-bit unsigned integer, and the total number of ports available in the TCP/IP model is 65,535 ports. Therefore, the range of port numbers is 0 to 65535.
What are ports and port numbers?
A port is identified for each transport protocol and address combination by a 16-bit unsigned number, known as the port number. The most common transport protocols that use port numbers are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the User Datagram Protocol (UDP).
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