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TCP/IP Lesson: Transport Layer – User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Overview
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In this post, we will first examine the two main protocols used to transfer packets from one host to another. We’ll start with User Datagram Protocol (UDP), the simpler of the two protocols. It’s just a connectionless, unreliable protocol. It proves demultiplexing (using destination ports) and error checking for data. In simple terms, we can say that there is no need to establish a connection with the host before exchanging data with it via UDP, and there is no mechanism to ensure that the data sent is received (no acknowledgment). The data sent over this protocol is called a datagram. If UDP is so powerless, why would any process want to use it? Despite all the drawbacks, there are some key advantages as well. UDP is a very simple protocol with minimal overhead. If a process wants to send a small message and doesn’t care much about reliability, it can use UDP. Sending small messages using UDP requires less interaction between the sender and receiver (and is therefore faster) than using TCP. Let us now understand the header fields attached to each datagram sent using the UDP protocol. UDP adds four 16-bit (8-byte) header fields to all sent data. These fields are the length field (for datagram length), the checksum field, and the source and destination port numbers. “Port number” means only a software port and not a hardware port. The port number mainly entifies which protocol module sent (or received) the data. Most protocols usually have standard ports in common use. For example, the Telnet protocol generally uses port number 23. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) uses port number 25. UDP or TCP use port numbers to determine which application layer protocol should receive data. Although UDP is unreliable, it is still the first choice for many applications. It’s used in real-time applications, such as in network audio and video, and if data is lost, it’s better not to do this, rather than resend it out of order. In addition, it is used by protocols such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).
Well Known Ports for UDP
The following table shows some of the well-known port numbers used by UDP. Some of these ports are available for UDP and TCP. Port Number Protocol Description 7 Echo Received datagrams are sent back to sender 9 Discard Each received datagram is discarded. 11 Users Active users 13 Daytime Returns the date and current time 17 Quote Returns today’s price 19 Charger Returns a string. 53 Name Server Domain Name Service (DNS). 67 BOOT Ps This is the server port for downloading boot information. 68 BOOT Pc This is the client port for downloading boot information. 69 TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol 111 RPC Remote Procedure Call 123 NTP Network Time Protocol. 161 SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol UDP (User Datagram Protocol) Complete Overview UDP is a connectionless (and unreliable) protocol. Therefore, the protocol does not guarantee the order and successful delivery of datagrams (packets). For example, applications that do not require acknowledgement of data receipt, such as audio or video transmission, use UDP. Applications that typically transfer small amounts of data at a time also use UDP, such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). In addition to the data sent, each UDP message contains a destination port number and a source port number. This allows the UDP software at the destination to deliver the message to the correct application and allows the application to send a reply. UDP packets are called datagrams and each packet contains the following fields (8-byte header field). The
UDP Datagram Header Fields
UDP header is dived into the following four 16-bit fields: Source port. destination port. overall length. Checksum.
Source Port of UDP
This is the port number used by the process running on the source host. The source port is an optional field that, where useful, specifies the port of the sending process. when not in use. Insert zero value. In most cases, if the source host is the server (the server that sent the reply), the port number is a well-known port number.
Destination Port of UDP
This port number is used by processes running on the target host. It is also 16 bits long. A destination port has a meaning associated with a specific Internet destination address. Datagram Length This is a 16-bit field that defines the total length of the datagram packet, header, and data. 16 bits can define a total length between 0 and 65,535 bytes. This is the size in bytes of a UDP packet, including headers and data. The minimum length is 8 bytes, which is just the length of the header. There is a field in the IP datagram that defines the total length. Another field in IP datagrams usually defines the length of the header. UDP Length = IP Length – IP Header Length Checksum in Header The checksum consists of three parts: the dummy header, the UDP header, and the data from the application layer. This is used to check the integrity of the UDP header (i.e. to detect errors). The checksum is performed using a “pseudo-header” consisting of information obtained from the IP header (source and destination addresses) and the UDP header.
UDP Pseudo Header
The purpose of using the pseudo-header is to verify that the UDP packet has reached its correct destination. The purpose of using dummy headers is to verify that a UDP packet has reached its correct destination. The UDP header mostly just specifies the protocol port number. So, to authenticate the destination, UDP computes a checksum on the sending computer that covers the destination IP address and the UDP packet. On the target computer, the UDP software verifies the checksum using the destination IP address obtained from the header of the IP packet containing the UDP message. If the checksums match, the packet must have reached the intended destination host and the correct protocol port within that host.
UDP Operation And Working
UDP implements a generic concept used in the transport layer to transfer datagrams between hosts. The 4 main functions are: Connectionless service. Flow control and error control. encapsulation and decapsulation. queuing mechanism. Connectionless Services One of the characteristics of connectionless services is that a process using UDP cannot send data streams to UDP and expect UDP to split them into various related user datagrams. UDP sends each indivual datagram completely independent of each other. All user datagrams are completely independent of each other, even though they originate from the same source process and arrive at the same destination process. These datagrams are not numbered. There is no need to establish or terminate the connection (terminate). Each datagram can follow a different path. Flow and Error Control It does not prove flow control, so the receiver may overflow with incoming messages (as is expected in any unreliable protocol). UDP does not support any error control mechanism other than checksums. The lack of flow control and error control means that processes using UDP should prove these mechanisms. No acknowledgment is sent from the destination to the sender. Therefore, the sender does not know whether the message arrived, was lost, or was duplicated. If the receiver detects an error based on the checksum, it discards that particular datagram. Encapsulation and Decapsulation UDP encapsulates and decapsulates messages in IP datagrams to exchange messages between two communicating processes. Queuing This process starts at the client site, requesting the port number from the operating system. In some implementations, both inbound and outbound queues are created associated with each process. There is only one port number per process, so one outgoing queue and another incoming queue can be created. Queues only work while the process is running. Once the process is complete, they will be destroyed. The client process uses the source port number. The request mentions sending the message to its outbound queue. UDP removes the queued messages one by one by adding a UDP header and delivers them to IP.
Applications of UDP
Although it is unreliable, it can be used in a we range of applications. Some of them are: It is used for RIP (Routing Information Protocol). It is used for management processes such as SNMP. It is suitable for processes with built-in process and error control mechanisms, such as B. TFTP. It is suitable for multicast applications. In the next article, we will dig into the next most important transport layer protocol, the TCP protocol. So stay tuned. report this ad
What is transport layer in User Datagram Protocol explain?
Transport layer protocol
UDP is the simplest transport layer communication protocol. It contains a minimum amount of communication mechanisms. It is considered an unreliable protocol, and it is based on best-effort delivery services.
What uses UDP protocol at the transport layer?
Following implementations uses UDP as a transport layer protocol: NTP (Network Time Protocol) DNS (Domain Name Service) BOOTP, DHCP.
What is UDP in detail?
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol that is primarily used to establish low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications on the internet. UDP speeds up transmissions by enabling the transfer of data before an agreement is provided by the receiving party.
How UDP works step by step?
When IP delivers a UDP datagram, the host checks the port number and delivers the data to the corresponding application. In this way, UDP provides simple multiplexing over IP to allow a host to send and receive data on multiple distinct ports.
What is UDP and its uses?
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) refers to a protocol used for communication throughout the internet. It is specifically chosen for time-sensitive applications like gaming, playing videos, or Domain Name System (DNS) lookups.
What is the main characteristics of UDP?
|General Description||Simple High speed low functionality “wrapper” that interface applications to the network layer and does little else|
|Protocol connection Setup||Connection less; data is sent without setup|
What is the UDP datagram format?
UDP is short for User Datagram Protocol. It is the simplest transport layer protocol. It has been designed to send data packets over the Internet. It simply takes the datagram from the network layer, attaches its header and sends it to the user.
Which applications use UDP?
Streaming media, real-time multiplayer games and voice over IP (VoIP) are examples of applications that often use UDP. In these particular applications, loss of packets is not usually a fatal problem. In VoIP, for example, latency and jitter are the primary concerns.
Why does UDP exist?
The point of UDP is that it lets you have many user processes, each sending packets and receiving them. The destination port number field in the UDP packet lets the receiving host know which packets should be delivered to which user processes. So mostly UDP is for sorting out incoming packets.
Why UDP is needed in transport layer?
UDP is used at the transport layer because it is a transport layer protocol. It provides “provides end-to-end communication services for applications” (RFC1122). Reliability services are optional for transport layer protocols.
Which protocol uses UDP as transport protocol?
1) Which one of the following uses UDP as the transport protocol? DNS primarily uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP) on port number 53 to serve requests. DNS queries consist of a single UDP request from the client followed by a single UDP reply from the server.
See some more details on the topic Transport Layer – User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Complete Overview here:
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) – GeeksforGeeks
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a Transport Layer protocol. UDP is a part of the Internet Protocol suite, referred to as UDP/IP suite.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) By – TechTarget
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol that is primarily used to establish low-latency and loss-tolerating connections between applications …
User Datagram Protocol – Tutorialspoint
User Datagram Protocol, The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is simplest Transport Layer communication protocol available of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
User Datagram Protocol – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics
UDP is another popular Layer 4 protocol. DNS, TFTP, and many other protocols rely on UDP for their data transmission. UDP is a connectionless protocol.
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